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Black scrap: melt can not be exported
Choose where to put an end to the uncontrolled export of scrap metal from the Far East, the law enforcers
LIMITATION FOR DEVELOPMENT
In July this year, the 19 Decree of the Government of Russia No. 2018 "On Determining Points of Passage through the State Border for the Departure of Certain Categories of Goods from the Russian Federation Outside the Customs Territory of the Unified Energy System of the Russian Federation for Certain Categories of Goods entered into force in the Far Eastern Federal District". The document limits on 584 days the export of ferrous scrap through the main universal ports - Vladivostok, Vostochny-Nakhodka, Vanino. Now export of scrap is allowed only through 180 ports. This is Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the Kamchatka Territory, Magadan in the Magadan Region, Cape Lazarev, Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, Okhotsk and De-Kastri in the Khabarovsk Territory, Moskalvo, Prigorodnoye and Shakhtersk on Sakhalin.
The measure was adopted to support metallurgical production in the Far East, which is represented by the only enterprise - the Amurstal plant (formerly Amurmetal). In 2013, the company, which was owned by Vnesheconombank at the time, began to experience difficulties. In 2017, a bankrupt company was bought by a group of companies "Torex", which managed to restart the main production processes. The maximum capacity of Amurstal is 1 million tons per year, and it can be achieved already in 2019 year. In 2017, the plant produced 187 thousand tons of products, from the beginning of this year to the end of August - more than 360 thousand tons. In plans for 2018 year - 700 thousand tons of products.
The only objective constraint on the way to increase production volumes for "Amurstal" has always been scrap metal - now it is a non-alternative raw material. "It's no secret that in the Far East there is a deficit of scrap metal, and as metal scrap, including abroad, decreases, the metal fund is declining," says Sergei Kuznetsov, general director of Amurstali. "Export restrictive measures are not a panacea. to find loopholes, how to circumvent the ban, or wait these six months, accumulating reserves.This is a very big money, and no one wants to lose them. "
Over the past year, the company received 203,1 thousand tonnes of ferrous scrap, they say in Torex, from January to the end of August this year - 447,9 thousand tonnes of scrap. For the production of 1 tons of finished products, 1,1 tons of scrap is needed. The Far Eastern enterprise is forced to win competition for raw materials with the largest metallurgical holdings of Asian countries. And all because scrap metal is more profitable to export than to supply to the domestic market.
The price of purchasing black scrap in the Far East, according to the data indicated in the commercial offers of OOO Rusmet, is 17 900 rubles per tonne - $ 262 at the current exchange rate. In South Korea, we are ready to buy a scrap for $ 345-348 (taking into account $ 12-18 dollars for transshipment in the port). But this is only one of the facets of the problem. The average price of declaring export scrap metal, according to DVTU (for the first half of the year 2018) - $ 227 per ton. So exporters "save" millions of rubles on export duties, amounting to 5% of the declared value of scrap. Of course, at a really higher price for metals abroad it is much more profitable to send raw materials for export.
Attempts to influence the situation with the withdrawal of the bulk of scrap through the Far East for export (it is estimated at 1 million tons annually) have been undertaken more than once. Similar bans on the export of scrap metal from the ports of the Far East were introduced in 2008 and 2011 years. Exporters appealed against these norms. They went on this way and now. This time, a lawsuit filed with the Supreme Court was made by the non-commercial partnership "National self-regulating organization of scrap and waste recyclers of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, utilization of vehicles." The hearing will begin in October 2018.
"Naturally, metallurgists believe that this decision of the government of the Russian Federation was really a necessary measure of support: it was simply impossible to reach an agreement with exporters in other ways." The fact that the government's decision is being appealed is not a new story. scrap is someone's business that brings hundreds of millions of rubles annually, "they say in Torex.
One of the "kits" of Komsomolsk-on-Amur
Discussion about what is more important - supporting the business of metal traders and stevedores or the preservation of "Amurstal" - goes, without stopping, from 2009 year. Then OJSC Amurmetal was declared bankrupt, being unable to pay multi-billion debts to the pool of Russian and foreign banks, the plant suspended the work of all the shops.
Vladimir Putin intervened in the situation, then holding the post of Russian prime minister - he instructed Vnesheconombank to buy out the plant from the structures of State Duma deputy Alexander Shishkin, open a credit line to pay interest on bank debts and find a compromise with creditors. VEB, as it could, tried to manage the enterprise, but in 2013 year began a search for either a professional management company or a new owner. As a result, the plant moved to the group "Torex", which owned a network of scrap procurement.
Attention to "Amurmetal" of the first persons of the country is understandable: the plant is one of the "three whales" of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur industry, represented also by the Sukhoi holding aircraft factory and the Amur shipbuilding plant that is part of the United Shipbuilding Corporation. With the "Amurmetal" closely linked the fate of thousands of Komsomol members: before the crisis at the plant was more than 6 thousand employees, together with families it - tens of thousands of people. To leave them on the street in conditions of deficit in Komsomolsk-on-Amur of regularly paid and prestigious work would mean a social catastrophe. Given that the city continues to lose its population, rushing in search of a better share in the more developed cities of the Far East or the west of the country, such a scenario would be unacceptable.
The second important aspect is the active construction in the Far East, deployed in recent years. In fact, starting from large-scale construction projects for the APEC-2012 summit in Vladivostok, the process does not lose momentum, including due to the arrival of mega-projects of the world level in the region. Any construction projects need metal, the only supplier of which in the Far East remains "Amurstal." This year should determine the parameters of the construction of the infrastructure project of the decade - the bridge to Sakhalin. Experience with the Crimean bridge has shown that for such objects huge amounts of concrete and metal are needed. Provide the second can also "Amurstal."
According to customs statistics, scrap exports in 2017 amounted to 1,036 million tonnes of ferrous scrap. In total, the Far East exported 61,16 million tons of cargo. Tonnage scrap is only 0,5% of the total freight turnover of the Far Eastern ports, or 1,7% of officially registered exports. The total customs value of the scrap removed is $ 177,92 million, or 0,8% of all goods declared by all exporters of $ 22,24 billion.
Thus, on one side of the scale are the percentages of the volumes of the Far Eastern economy - and the functioning of the basic enterprise of a large industrial city in the region.
OVERLOADING THE SILENT CHART
It is noteworthy that the ban on exports of scrap through the main ports of the Far East is already in place, but it has not really worked in fact. Exporters use remote declaring in ports from the list of allowed.
For example, 4 August of this year, the Orange Link ship was loaded with metal waste in Vladivostok, 8 August left for Sakhalin in Prigorodnoye, and already 13, went from Prigorodny to South Korea. In Prigorodnoye, according to Rosmorport, there is no technical possibility of unloading dry cargo - there are no corresponding quay walls, since the port is used for export of LNG. Therefore, the cargo was not examined by customs, which makes the entire export process absolutely not transparent.
LLC "Torex" has already applied for a verification of such a scheme for sending scrap for export to the Office of the Prosecutor General's Office in the Far Eastern Federal District, and the fact is verified by the Sakhalin Transport Prosecutor's Office. In "Torex" believe that the scheme used to send scrap abroad is used by unscrupulous traders who took the position "arbitrarily, but only for export." "Exporters said last year that they do not want to sell scrap to the plant because they are afraid that the price will decrease over time." A year and a half after the new owner went to the plant, the price only continued to grow. "With 8 thousand rubles per tonne rose up to 16 thousand rubles per tonne, and it has never been lower than that offered in South Korea.In fact, it is more profitable for exporters to sell scrap here, as they will get money faster for it, and the factory works on prepayment. - exports "- say in" TOREKS ".
Sergei Kuznetsov believes that in the long term, Amurstal needs to look for new sources of raw materials instead of scrap, the deficit of which will only grow. Alternative sources are iron from ore, direct reduction iron or cast iron, which can be used in electric furnaces of the plant as a mixture to scrap. Up to 50% of the current raw materials can be replaced with cast iron, up to 25% - pellets. But the use of such technologies will require long-term investments in the modernization of production: iron ore concentrate, for example, will have to be restored, for which production requires natural gas. And even after that, without any scrap, Amurstal can not work anyway. "Will we be provided with the required volumes of raw materials, will the price suit us, is the cost comparable with the price of scrap metal - all this should be considered," says Sergei Kuznetsov.