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Far East orphans "squares"
How to solve the problem of providing housing for orphans in the east of the country
The provision of housing for orphans and children left without parental care is the responsibility of the state, which is performed very differently throughout the country. Somewhere in the Far East there are practically no problems with this, but some densely populated regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, due to the lack of systematic work and huge queues for housing, are at a dead end, a quick exit from which is capable, without exaggeration, of "crushing regional budgets." EastRussia was aware of clever bureaucratic schemes, the reasons for the slippage of construction projects and the collapse of buildings, as well as separately - in the situation in Primorye, where apartments are waiting for 6,5 thousand people.
Three Far Eastern regions can serve as a model for how regional authorities should provide shelter for orphans and children left without parental care. So, in general there is no debt on this indicator in the Magadan region. Kolyma is one of the leaders in Russia. Last year, here planned to purchase for graduates of orphanages 135 apartments. Most of them were to be bought in the regional capital - in this region, orphans themselves have the right to choose where they want to live, and most often they choose Magadan. The plans have been implemented in full.
In the Kamchatka Krai, the program to provide housing for orphans is no less successful. The region also occupies a leading position in the rating of the subjects of the Russian Federation. Last year, more than 100 children left without parental care moved into their own apartments. And all, since 2013 year, housing in Kamchatka is provided for about 800 citizens of this category. And most of the apartments for orphans are not purchased in separate houses specially built for this purpose, but in ordinary residential areas. This contributes to a more rapid and successful socialization of graduates of orphanages.
On Sakhalin, the situation is so good that the authorized representative under the President of the Russian Federation for the rights of the child, Anna Kuznetsova, considered that the experience of the region can serve as an example for all others. Apartments for orphans here are also purchased in existing residential areas, and almost all of them apply for help. The lion's share of funds for these purposes is allocated from the regional treasury. So, in 2016 258 apartments were purchased, in 2017 year - 220 apartments.
The situation is much worse in the Amur Region. As a result of last year, the most funds were allocated to provide housing for orphans in the capital of the region. However, only 41 resident of Blagoveshchensk could celebrate the housewarming. To reduce the number of graduates from orphanages, additional measures were taken. In particular, last year, with the development of budget funds, the region managed to save more than 700 thousand rubles. This money deputies of the legislative assembly of the Amur region decided to send to improve the situation with housing for orphans.
But, despite all the efforts, it's too early to talk about progress. Thus, only the intervention of the prosecutor's office helped get a house and a residence permit for five graduates of orphanages from Belogorsky district. Having grown up without parental care, the Amur residents have already got their own children, but they still had to rent housing. Only an appeal to the prosecutor's office helped to remove the housing issue. The court ruled in their favor, and in 2017 it was executed.
In the Amur region, orphans, in general, most often receive the square meters prescribed by law, not in the order of the living queuing, but in the order of the queue, composed of unfulfilled court decisions. In whose case the decision was rendered earlier, he will be the first to receive housing. it recognized even the governor of the region Alexander Kozlov: "Now in almost all regional budgets a difficult situation. The volume of financial resources is limited. To date, the administration of the Free is 162 unfulfilled judgments. The amount of funding this year will only provide partially housing for orphans, court decisions on which were made as early as 2013-2014 years. "
In the Khabarovsk Territory without the intervention of the prosecutor's office also does not do. Only after the intervention of law enforcement bodies by the end of the year 2017 was completed the construction of the first stage of the residential complex "Tverdokhlebovo" near Khabarovsk, where 50 apartments were intended for orphans. Construction began in 2013-2014, but due to weak control by the authorities, the contractor used the funds for other purposes, which led to the construction site being stopped. Two criminal cases were initiated: in relation to the general director of the developer Kapitel LLC, on the fact of embezzlement, with respect to the former Minister of Construction of the region - on the fact of negligence. The guilty verdicts were pronounced late last year or early this year: the businessman received 4 years of imprisonment, the ex-official - 5,5 years. The prosecutor's office sent last year to the courts of 58 lawsuits in defense of the rights of orphans to provide housing.
As of December last year, the Khabarovsk Krai Ministry of Housing and Communal Services registered nearly 3,3 thousand people from among orphans and children left without parental care who need housing. The pace of housing construction so far does not allow the liquidation of the queue: so, in 2018, according to the information of the regional prosecutor's office, it was planned to build at least 450 apartments, but in the course of updating the profile state program this figure is planned to be brought to 580. Since 2006, the Khabarovsk ministry of housing and communal services has granted graduates of orphanages 1712 apartments. Those who are still waiting for housing, at the expense of the regional budget, are compensated for the cost of rent. In Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur, they are paid 10 thousand rubles, in the centers of districts - by 5 thousand, in villages - by 2,7 thousand rubles. This support measure is valid from 2014 year, it has already been used by 1,2 thousand people.
EXPECTED BY YEARS
The most difficult situation with housing for orphans was in Primorsky Krai. Vice-governor of Primorsky Krai Konstantin Mezhonov admits that the problem of providing housing for orphans "is still one of the most acute": more than 6,5 thousand people are waiting for apartments, and most of them are adults. In the region, we decided to follow the path already tested in the Khabarovsk Territory. In the Primorsky Territory administration, with the submission of the regional prosecutor's office, they prepared a draft regional law on the provision of monthly compensation from the regional treasury for hiring or renting housing in the territory of the province, and the deputies proposed introducing a simplified procedure for transferring land to those entrepreneurs who are ready to share a part of the apartments in the constructed apartment buildings for children - Orphans.
So far, new mechanisms have not worked, in Primorye will continue to build and buy housing for orphans: Konstantin Mezhonov lists the planned for surrender of the house, mainly in the settlements - not in Vladivostok. That's only with these current programs, as law enforcement agencies found out, not everything is as good as it seems.
In the summer of 2017, the prosecutor's office's investigation revealed violations of the law when purchasing residential premises for orphans at the expense of the federal and regional budget. The manager of almost 660 million rubles for 2017 was the Department of Education and Science, but there were no trained specialists who could work with the contract system. Trying to analyze the property market using the free ads site to determine the initial maximum price of future contracts, the agency specialists used announcements for the sale of apartments at prices well above average market prices, says Elena Telegina, senior assistant to the Primorsky region prosecutor.
As a result, for almost all government contracts for the purchase of housing for orphans, prices were inflated at least by 30-50%, or even twice, and announcements targeted by officials were posted by anonymous authors. "In the territory of Partizansky urban district in the first half of the year 2017, the department employees purchased five apartments at the price of the contract 1 179 345 rubles, while similar apartments were offered for sale at prices ranging from 500 000 to 900 000 rubles," the prosecutor's example cites. In one of the settlements, the department purchased for 973 thousand rubles an apartment bought three months before the auction by the previous owner for 270 thousand rubles at an average price of similar real estate objects in 400-600 thousand rubles, another example is Elena Telegina. On this fact a criminal case was opened on suspicion of fraud (Part 3 article 159 UK Criminal Code).
Meanwhile, the regional authorities receive from the supervisory authority mass actions in defense of the rights of orphans for housing: only from July 2014 to November 2017, they were filed over 4,5 thousand. Last year, the administration of the region was fined by the decision of the bailiff service for non-enforcement of judicial decisions on housing for orphans almost 4 thousand times for a total of 180,8 million rubles. In January of this year, the authority to purchase dwellings for subsequent provision to orphans upon submission to the regional prosecutor's office was transferred to the Department of Land and Property Relations, but until 1 July, during the transition period, the Department of Education and Science continues to deal with the matter.
At the same time, the funds for building housing for orphans in Primorye's budget, if not in full, but are there. The problem is different. For example, at 2016 year, the city planning department of the regional administration could dispose of an amount of 300,75 million rubles, intended for the construction of six houses for 216 apartments. But in the end, officials did not master 71% of the funds, having concluded only one contract for the construction of two houses and three contracts for the development of design estimates. The regional investigation department of the TFR, based on materials of the prosecutor's check, initiated a criminal case on this matter in part 1 art. 293 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, his investigation continues.
In the Department of Urban Development of Primorye recognize that in 2017 only 42,52% of the funds allocated for the construction of housing for orphans were mastered. But they refer to objective reasons: low quality of work of municipalities picking up plots for future construction, and long terms of preliminary procedures and works. "From the moment the commission decides to select a land plot before entering the stage of construction and installation work, a minimum of 230 days is required.This period includes 70 days of procurement procedures for the development of design estimates for the binding of a standard project to the selected land, a minimum of 60 days execution of the contract itself, 30-60 days for obtaining a positive conclusion of the state expertise, and 70 more days for purchases during the construction and installation works, "the department explained.
"However, the main reason for the incomplete development of budget funds in 2017 is the fact that in previous years the previous management of the department did not conduct a commission for the selection of land for the construction of houses, and therefore the work plan for the next 2017 fiscal year was not defined," - the department says. Now the department has selected 12 plots for construction, thereby forming a work plan for 2018-2019 years, officials assure.
NOT IN YOUR APARTMENT - AND WHERE?
On these statistics, however, you start to look with other eyes, when live communicate with the queued to receive housing. 40-year-old Irina (name changed. - EastRussia) only last year learned that she has the right to receive free housing - when she found herself in the center of social support for pregnant women and mothers with children "Living Hope" in a suburb of Vladivostok. Her mother died when the girl was 5 years old, the father who married another woman - when there was 16. The stepmother's son asked to be discharged, and wanderings began: work at the post office, marriage, the death of her husband, a private farm, pregnancy. Now, together with her one-year-old daughter, Irina has been living in a two-storey house with an attic for nine months. Here, old furniture - with the world on a thread, but it's warm, clean and smells of food.
"There is a category of boys and girls, graduates of orphanages who have nowhere to go: they were over 18 years old, they were released from the orphanage, at best they entered the vocational education institutions with dormitories." But the girls, if they became mothers, could not stay in the hostel Secondly, many of them abandoned schools, scattered around the cities and villages, many managed to decide in this life, to find themselves, but not to everyone, "says the director of the" Living Hope "center, Alexander Vitaliev. Now he has eight mothers and 12 children. Girls and women are helped to restore passports and other documents, teach them to prepare and keep the budget, arrange for work. The building was given to the center by the citizen of New Zealand Rachel Hughes, who in 2008 started working with seaside homeless children, and then left home, but left the "Living Hope" house.
The team of the center, capable of hosting up to 15 moms, has six people: in addition to the director, there are two social workers, a psychologist, a lawyer and an accountant. Among those whom they already helped, - 23-year-old Victoria with a three-year-old son. There is a court decision that the authorities must give her a home in the Great Stone. True, she says that she wants to stay in Vladivostok. She studied in Ussuriysk on the plaster-painter, then on the cook - just to live in a hostel, then "went to the guests: then spent the night, then there." Now he is renting housing for 20 thousand rubles. per month. "Generally, only a few people got shelter from my friends, and thanks to relatives and friends who helped to dislodge this housing, they also waited a long time, for 8-12 years, with me a loader who is already 30 years old, and he is still waiting for an apartment, "- says Victoria.
Many orphans would like housing in Vladivostok, which is understandable, there are generally most waiting lists - 854, according to the deputy head of the department of education of the province Natalia Vasilianskaya. But in the capital of Primorye, unlike towns and small towns, residential facilities for this category of citizens are not built at all. True, the Department of Urban Development of the Territory says that after the completion of the construction of the "Complex D" residential microdistrict "Snowfall Pad" in 2019, "the issue of transferring a certain number of apartments for inclusion in a specialized housing fund into the ownership of Primorsky Krai and subsequent transfer to persons from among orphans, children left without parental care. "
It remains to be hoped that, at least with this construction, nothing bad will happen.