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The Far East is the future of Russia
80% of Russians are optimistic about the prospects of the Far East region
The All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion (VTsIOM) and the Ministry for the Development of the Far East presented a large-scale study at a press conference in Moscow, representing the Russians ’view of the Far East. Sociologists tried to find out which large-scale projects and ideas concerning the priority development of the FEFD find response and support from citizens, and which problems remain to be solved.
Presenting the results of the study, the head of Minsk region Alexander Galushka noted that "in the modern history of Russia this is perhaps the deepest sociological study of the attitude of Russians towards the Far East, the vision of the Far East by Russian society, understanding of the problems that exist in the Far East."
The largest sociological service involved all its extensive capabilities: the survey included mass polls — the usual all-Russian in a representative sample — 1600 respondents from the 43 regions of the country, as well as polls from residents of the Far Eastern regions — by the 2 survey in each subject of the FEFD. In addition, sociologists conducted 16 focus groups with residents of regions of the Russian Federation that are not part of the DFO; with residents of the subjects of the Far East (18 focus groups); moved to the DFO regions for permanent residence (4 focus groups); with students from DFO subjects studying in universities located in other federal districts (4 focus groups); with residents of the FEFD regions who are ready to move outside the district (18 focus groups); with those who arrived in the DFO regions for temporary work (2 focus groups).
"VTsIOM interviewed about 20 thousand people, and more 60 focus groups were conducted. Today we would like to present some of the results - in fact, the study is very voluminous, "said Alexander Galushka.
The VTsIOM survey showed that in the eyes of 80% of Russians, the situation in the Far East looks like a happy one: the Far East are optimistic about the prospects for the development of the Far Eastern Federal District. Alexander Galushka drew attention to the following points.
"The first is the perception of the Far East. And here, perhaps, the key word that characterizes this perception is the word hope. Today, if we talk about the inhabitants of the entire Russian Federation, and not only of the Far East, the greater part is 86% - believe that the Far East is a promising territory for the development of the entire Russian Federation. At the same time 9% believe that it is already such now. 57% believe that it will be the same in the next 10-15 years, and 20% believe that it will become promising in the longer term - more than 15 years. If we talk about the Far East, then 10% of them consider the Far East a promising area, 51% believe that it will become such in 10-15 years and 23% - that it will become in a later period. What, in my opinion, is very important is that the overwhelming majority of Russian society - more than 80% (both residents in the whole of the Russian Federation and residents of the Far East) inextricably link the development prospects of the country with the Far East and its hopes with its development. If you and I remember the 1990-ies, very difficult, when the country collapsed and the centrifugal tendencies were very strong, there were quite significant pessimistic moods about the integrity of the country, regarding the Far East, today we can firmly see that there are no such moods in Russian society . This is a very important, principled and long-term conclusion, "said Alexander Galushka.
What exactly do the citizens of Russia have to do with their conviction that the Russian Far East will move forward and develop the whole country? Attitude towards development projects is the second major, according to Alexandra Galushka, moment of research.
“Today, 53% of the country's citizens believe that these development projects launched in the Far East have a positive effect on the development of our macro-region, 10% believe that, undoubtedly, this trend is already there, and 43% believe that it is more likely positive, ”he stated.
Among the projects, Alexander Galushka called the APEC summit, the beginning of the modernization of the Baikal-Amur Mainline and the Trans-Siberian Railway, the "Power of Siberia", the construction of the Vostochny cosmodrome, and investment projects supported by the Ministry of Regional Development. "All these projects are quite long-term - we are at the beginning of the road, and nevertheless today most of the Russian society - 53% - connects with them the prospects for the development of the Far East," he said.
The third point is the attitude of Russians towards new instruments for the development of the Far East. The most positive prospects are opened, according to respondents, in connection with the creation of advanced development territories (TORs) in the region. The minister said that 70% of Russians believe that the territories of advanced development will be successful and will lead to the development of the Far East, improving the quality of life of the population.
From the idea of creating a Free Port, Vladivostok is expected to raise the standard of living in the region 66% of the Far Eastern respondents. "The law was signed two weeks ago, with 12 October comes into force, and the government has developed an appropriate plan, so that until this time all by-laws were adopted," - said Alexander Galushka.
The initiative on free allocation of land in the Far East (the bill passes the phase of public discussion) found support among 61% of respondents. Moreover, the study revealed that this project has a serious potential for attracting people to the Far East. 20% of the citizens interviewed allow participation in the program and the subsequent transfer to the Far Eastern Federal District. And this is every fifth inhabitant of the country!
"For us it is very important. There was such a question, but how much in general citizens of Russia in the 21 century will be interested in such a measure as the free provision of land, - the head of Minvostokrazvitie shared. - VTsIOM studied this topic, and we received a response - 20% of citizens of the Russian Federation is about 30 million people. Let me remind you that we have 6 million people in the Far East. This indicative assessment of the potential, in our opinion, is important precisely at this stage of the project's implementation. "
According to the survey, the Russians from the 18-24 age group (31% of respondents in this age category) would be more likely to go to the Far East if the land was allocated. In the group 25-34 summer for moving on these terms expressed slightly less people (29%). Respondents would prefer to receive the land mainly in those regions that are estimated by respondents as the most comfortable and convenient for living: Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, the Amur Region. This, according to VTsIOM researchers, is due to the fact that agriculture is possible in these territories. Most often, the main goal of obtaining land was called the desire to farm (28%) or to be a farmer (19%). Less commonly, land was supposed to be used for obtaining other types of income (26%).
"I also emphasize that we are preparing together with Rosreestr, on behalf of the Government of the Russian Federation, an appropriate electronic service that will allow, through the Internet on the basis of the cadastral card on duty, very promptly within 10-15 minutes to register and reserve the land plot that interested the citizen of the Russian Federation" , - said Alexander Galushka, adding that 3-5 September at the Eastern Economic Forum (WEF) in Vladivostok will be presented a demo version of this service.
To the East!
41% of Russians somehow think about changing their place of residence. From among these people, it is possible to form a new influx of migrants to the Far East, given the favorable prerequisites for such a solution. Thus, the fourth point of the study, which the head of the Minsk region, drew attention to, is what the citizens of the Russian Federation are waiting for if they realize themselves on the eastern borders of the country.
"In the first place is the opportunity to get a good job. 55% of citizens of the Russian Federation puts this on the first place, this is the main driving motive. I want to note that there is nothing new and nothing special about this: in the whole world, what is primarily of interest to people in the social sphere is a good work. Good job with a good salary. The same thing interests Russians in the Far East, "said Alexander Galushka. He noted that projects related to supporting investment initiatives, the creation of territories for advanced development, the Free Port of Vladivostok, are aimed at the formation of new high-quality modern jobs.
"In second place is affordable housing and social security (31%) and the opportunity for education and development (29%). Also, Russians pay attention to the good climate and favorable ecological situation in the Far East (25 and 24%, respectively), "said Alexander Galushka.
At the same time, according to the VTsIOM study, the motives stated in focus groups are not always reduced to material interest. Respondents are also attracted by the beauty of the region, the possibilities of scientific research, and the very demand for energetic and courageous people in the Far East who are able to benefit this part of Russia.An important factor in the retention of the population of the Far East, the Far Eastern people themselves consider active state policy in relation to the DFO. 53% of respondents believe that large state projects already now have a positive impact on the socio-economic development of the Far East. In general, the new economic model of the Far East is the main driver of the region’s development and population retention within the Far Eastern Federal District.
The VTsIOM poll showed that the Far East in terms of consolidation in the Far East is concerned with work with wages - 54% (in the scale of the country 55%, in the Far East - 54%). However, the Far East has a vision of its own particular difficulties. There are three of them - the quality of the level of medical care, the cost of housing, transport infrastructure.
"The government has an understanding of these problems. Today, unfortunately, while the transport infrastructure, the cost of housing, as well as the quality of medical services are lagging behind, this should be dealt with. A special meeting of the government commission headed by the prime minister was devoted precisely to these issues. The government commission was held at the end of June last year. Very detailed and operative, I would say, instructions are given on this matter. I can say that today there is an understanding of the reasons for this state of affairs. Many of them were formed not in one, not in two years, many of them are quite long-lasting. But one thing I can note is that the government has established such work on the prioritization of relevant state programs in the field of health, the formation of affordable housing and the development of transport infrastructure in the Far East. There is an intention to engage in these areas consistently, "- summed up Alexander Galushka.