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For forests and cities
How environmental programs work in Kamchatka
In the framework of the national project “Ecology”, five regional programs have been developed in the Kamchatka Territory: “Conservation of forests”, “Conservation of biological diversity and the development of ecological tourism”, “Conservation of unique water bodies”, “Integrated system for solid municipal waste management” and “Clean water” ". As is clear from the names of these projects, they are designed to solve the problems of the amazing Kamchatka reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, as well as cities and towns. EastRussia understood how environmental programs work in the region and what problems are most relevant to it. Moreover, there have been many reasons for this lately.
Forests, volcanoes and lakes
In August 2019, a UNESCO delegation worked in Kamchatka. For the first time in 12 years, specialists inspected the UNESCO World Heritage Site - the Kamchatka Volcanoes Nature Park. This is the largest specially protected area (SPNA) of the region includes the Kronotsky Reserve, the South Kamchatka Federal Reserve and four clusters of the Kamchatka Volcanoes Park: Nalychevo, South Kamchatsky, Bystrinsky and Klyuchevsky.
The task of the specialists was to make sure that the natural park “Volcanoes of Kamchatka” really corresponds to the status of the World Heritage Site, and the recommendations for its protection are being implemented. Among these recommendations, for example, protection of rare and iconic animals for Kamchatka (reindeer, bears); fundamental scientific research and others.
In general, UNESCO representatives were pleased with how the work is going on — this was discussed at meetings with both the heads of the protected areas and the government of the Kamchatka Territory.
“These territories meet the mandatory criteria of the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage,” EastRussia was told in the press service of the Kronotsky Reserve. “There you can observe the results of serious geological and volcanic processes that created unique landscapes.”
The protected areas conduct a systematic study of the biodiversity of terrestrial, river, coastal and marine ecosystems. A number of objects are an example of exceptional natural beauty. One of the main functions of specially protected natural areas is the conservation and restoration of rare and endangered species of animals.
“The network of protected areas of the Kamchatka Territory includes 96 facilities, including four facilities of federal significance. Experts assess it as one of the most effective and efficient regional networks of protected areas in the country, which is crucial in preserving the landscape and biological diversity of the region, key natural ecosystems, in restoring and maintaining viable populations of economically valuable, rare and endangered species of animals and plants and the environment their habitat. Specially protected natural territories occupy more than 11% of the area of the Kamchatka Territory, ”says Vladimir Ilyukhin, Governor of the Kamchatka Territory.
At the same time, representatives of the UNESCO delegation spoke about the problems. And the main one is anthropogenic influence.
“We are concerned that there are not many places left in Kamchatka where nature is untouched by man. To preserve biodiversity, our experts are ready for further dialogue with those involved in tourism projects, ”said Isabelle Anatole-Gabrielle, representative of the UNESCO World Heritage Center.
“There are few untouched places” - and this despite the fact that only on 5% of the areas in the protected areas of the region there are tourist programs. And in the Kronotsky Reserve, such territories occupy less than 1%. But, as it turns out, the main danger to the reserved places is not even tourists (especially organized ones), but entrepreneurs. For example, those who have long intended to create a sockeye herd in Kronotsky Lake. The main “asset” of the lake is the largest variety of salmon in the world. And if you build a fish passage there and run a herd of cattle in Kronotsky, this, according to experts, will lead to an environmental disaster.
“Firstly, this is against the law, since the reservoir is located in the reserve, where the World Natural Heritage is preserved. In addition, the world has not yet come up with engineering structures that would ensure the functioning of an artificial fish passage channel with such a difference in altitude, ”said Petr Shpilenok, director of the Kronotsky State Nature Reserve. “The Minister of Natural Resources of Russia, the presidential envoy to the Far Eastern Federal District and the governor of the Kamchatka Territory have already spoken out against such plans.”
Representatives of UNESCO discussed these and other problems with the leadership of the region. It is planned that by the beginning of the 2020 year a general management plan for the protected areas of Kamchatka will be developed. The working group will include specialists from UNESCO, the nature reserves of the region and the regional government. Meanwhile, according to the governor of Kamchatka, Vladimir Ilyukhin, much has already been done in the region to protect unique natural sites.
“The regional project“ Forest conservation ”provides for the purchase of fire fighting equipment and specialized forestry equipment: in 2019, more than 28 million rubles were allocated for this purpose. Reforestation measures include promoting natural regeneration of 560 ha and logging in the amount of 165 ha / 825 cubic meters, says Vladimir Ilyukhin. - Within the framework of the project “Preservation of unique water bodies”, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Kamchatka Territory holds subbotniks and environmental events with the participation of volunteers. In total this year it is planned to clear 1,7 km of coasts with the participation of a voluntary movement - about 1 600 people. ”
The most recent example: the residents of the Yelizovsky region on 6 September organized the ecological marathon "Clean Shores of the Far East." Volunteers - representatives of public and youth organizations and simply not indifferent people - cleaned the territory near the tributary of the Polovinka River.
In August, another event significant for the region took place in Kamchatka: in test mode, the second line of a high-tech garbage processing complex was launched. These capacities are enough to sort and recycle all household waste of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky - and this is about 200 thousand tons daily.
The second production line of the enterprise, organized by the Phoenix company, is almost twice as powerful as the first, launched in February. It is important that the plant not only collects and utilizes waste, but sorts it (plastic, cardboard and paper, metal, glass) and sends it for further processing. The second line of the plant will reach full capacity by the end of the 2019 year. The future plans of Phoenix include the construction of a modern MSW landfill, and in the future the company intends to establish production of landfill gas and process it into electricity.
The creation of such enterprises is part of the project “Integrated Solid Waste Management System” of the Ecology national project.
“In large regional centers, we plan to supply new landfills on which waste sorting lines will also be built. This, of course, will positively affect the environmental situation in our region, ”said Andrey Kudrin, head of the Kamchatka Krai waste management agency.
By the way, Phoenix is the first company in the region that specializes in the processing of municipal waste. The governor of Kamchatka attended the opening of the first line of the enterprise.
“A lot has already been done to form an effective waste management system. In February 2019, a waste sorting complex was put into operation in the territory of the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky city district, and by the end of the year it is planned to commission a complex of the same type in the Yelizovsky district, ”explains Vladimir Ilyukhin. - In addition, a project is being developed for the construction of landfills in Tigilsky, Milkovsky, Karaginsky and Olyutorsky municipal districts and the urban district "Village of Palana". Within the framework of the Integrated Solid Municipal Waste Management System project, it is planned to support small and medium-sized businesses (enterprises working in this field), subsidize the tariff for collecting, transporting, processing, disposing of waste, disposing of waste and developing an electronic model for MSW management in December 2019 of the year. "
But the Clean Water subprogram of the Ecology national project is not unique - it operates not only in Kamchatka, but also in most Russian regions. What is not surprising: providing cities and towns with clean drinking water is the number one task everywhere.
As part of the Clean Water program, the Kamchatka Territory plans to build new networks, in particular, it is planned to build the Bystrinsky water intake, and to reconstruct existing ones. So, in the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Yelizovsky districts in the near future they will update the treatment facilities where deep-water wastewater releases are now operating.
“About ten million rubles have been allocated for the implementation of the Pure Water regional project. The first thing to do here is to check the water supply system for compliance with quality indicators. And the colleagues have already presented the first results of this work, ”the governor of the Kamchatka Territory says. - Under the subsidy from the federal budget this year it is planned to build a water supply system in the village of Lesnaya in the Tigilsky district. Documents on this capital construction have already been submitted to the Russian Ministry of Construction for verification. ”