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Dmitry Alekseev: "Discounter means: discounts for all ..."
A well-known Russian businessman believes that the benefits of WSP could be extended not only to residents
At the last in 2015 year, December meeting of the Supervisory Board of the Free Port of Vladivostok (SPV), the status of its residents received eight more projects. Among them is the production and logistics complex (PLC) "Yankovsky", owned by the DNS company (a network of retail stores selling digital and household appliances), which is included in the Forbes magazine's list of the top 100 private companies in Russia.
Formally, according to the newly made Law on the SST, the status of a resident can only be obtained by a newly established enterprise. In the rationality and justice of this approach, the CEO of DNS, the famous Russian businessman Dmitry Alekseev, doubts. His position, he reasoned in an interview with the information and analytical agency "East Russia".
Federal Law No. 212-FZ “On the Free Port of Vladivostok” (SPV) was signed by the President of the Russian Federation on July 13 2015 of the year, entered into force on October 12 of the year 2015. The law provides for the introduction of a special economic zone in the 15 municipalities of Primorsky Krai. Enterprises that have received the status of residents of SPV (the procedure is prescribed in the Law) acquire a number of preferences, including: corporate income tax holidays (the rate during the first 5 years does not exceed 5%); five-year vacation on the property tax of organizations and on land tax; preferential insurance premium rates for investment projects, for the first 10 years in the amount of 7,6%, etc.
- Dmitry Yurievich, they say, you are cautiously optimistic about your "calling" in SPV. Why?
- Because it is not known yet how the provision in the Law will prove itself in practice to give the status of a resident of the WSS only to newly established enterprises. So, there is economic freedom for residents. And for the rest?
Maybe I am wrong, but it seems to me that our President, when he submitted the idea to declare Vladivostok a free port, thought of creating comfortable economic conditions absolutely for all players operating in the markets of the Pacific coast of Russia. Now we have a free port, but only for residents. Does not this raise the question of the basis of any successful entrepreneurship - competition?
- But can not any "old" company establish its new "daughter" for the release of some new, or formally new products, and already this "daughter" (as a resident) to enter the SPV?
-Of course, he can. But you correctly noticed it - formally. Let's say there is an old enterprise on the territory of the province that produces bakery products. To enter the SPV as a resident, it formally establishes a subsidiary structure and gives it a part of its production, but under the guise of new (changed the name, say) products. "Daughter" is registered as a resident and is released, therefore, from a significant share of the tax burden. But in fact - the parent company is freed from it. As a result, the regional budget does not receive money in comparison with the previous state of affairs.
- But there is a supervisory board of SPV. He will be able to separate the "fake" residents from the real ...
- I do not doubt that. But, firstly, this is an additional headache, and secondly - in practice a clear boundary between the new production and the former will be very difficult.
Translate the region into free port mode - this is how to convert a supermarket into a discounter mode. That is, in order to attract customers, to revive their demand, you, as the store owner, understate the price of many types of goods. But in the end, the total profit increases due to the overall increase in turnover: due to the cheapening of the goods, buyers begin to massively visit your store and actively make purchases in it.
But in our case, "store owner" offers all customers to divide into two categories - "old men" and "newbies". If you have previously visited our store - buy goods at the same price. And if the newcomer - then you, please, a substantial discount. Of course, in this situation, the owner has the problem of separating "newcomers" from "old men", because the second by all the truths and crooks will try to impersonate the first.
Of course, in reality, any store owner - if he puts his supermarket in discounter mode, he offers discounts to absolutely all customers. The same is the case with the free port - it will be able to give an effective return, most likely if the entire regional economy - and not tens and even hundreds of residents - starts working in a preferential mode.
"But in the case of a free port, if it is free for all, there will arise, as some experts fear, the problem with the filling of the regional budget with taxes ...
- It could be solved by redistributing tax flows from the federal center to the benefit of the region. For example, income from value-added tax - left in a region that operates in the free port mode entirely for all players of the regional market. Thus, the region is rapidly developing in socio-economic terms and removes from the federal center a huge part of the concerns, on its subsidizing and subsidizing.
Of course, such progress is possible only with the introduction of appropriate changes to the Budget Code of the Russian Federation. I do not exclude that this approach will be understood by the Supervisory Board and the administration of the region.
- Often, speaking of SPV and territories of priority development, officials point to the attractiveness of these regimes for foreign investors ...
- Not all officials think so. There are those who believe that: first, from the standpoint of patriotism, one should think about creating comfortable conditions, first of all, for the domestic business, and secondly, the foreign businessman should not be perceived as a person who only wants to invest in the Russian economy. All the post-Soviet expansion of foreign companies were very pragmatic (and even cynical) and were associated primarily with the seizures of huge sectors of our consumer market (food, beverages, clothing, household goods, etc.) and the market of industrial raw materials.
To some extent, there are no serious reasons to develop our economy and social sphere among foreigners, objectively speaking. This is confirmed by the statistics according to which the share of investments of our nearest neighbor, China, in the Russian economy is less than 1%.
- And how much is demanded today by Russian and foreign tenants of Aviapolis Yankovsky and should we expect now — given the tax preferences that have arisen for him as a resident of SPV — of a reduction in the rental rate?
- All warehouse capacities of the complex are occupied by 100%. Production facilities are also gradually finding their tenants. As for preferences, they will only apply to newly constructed facilities. You understand, the resident of the SPV was not a functioning warehouse complex, but a project for its development. Therefore, the received status gives us an incentive to build new capacities, not only warehouse facilities, but also production ones. In the near future we will do it.
As for the operation of the already existing Yankovsky warehouse facilities, the rental rate here is already lower than the average for the regional market.
- DNS thinks to transfer to "Yankovsky" from China the assembly of its products under the brand name?
- Our computers and laptops have long been collected in Russia. And as for smartphones and other digital gadgets, it is still more profitable to collect them in China - for logistics reasons.
- If you summarize, will, in your opinion, become a catalyst for social and economic development of the Primorsky Territory and the Far East in general?
- I hope that the Law on the Free Port will be improved for the better as the law enforcement practice is analyzed by the members of the Supervisory Board of the SPS. Among them there are many competent specialists and capable managers with experience of entrepreneurial and legal activity.
Dmitry Alekseev, 42 of the year, a native of Vladivostok. By specialty - engineer. Since 1998, the founder, co-owner and head of the DNS company. Patriot of Primorye. Professional credo - the path to success is based on overcoming all fears. Destroyer of the following stereotypes: "foreigners will help us", "all the ills of corruption," "business should be afraid of officials." He believes that the main problems in Russia stem from inefficient state management. And to improve it - it is necessary to develop horizontal public relations in all spheres of human life.