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Alexander Osipov: Do not implement commodity projects in the economy in the Far East - wrong
- Alexander Mikhailovich, there is the following expert opinion: one can not speak of the development of the Far East in isolation from Siberia. Since Siberia is a source not only of natural resources, but also the territory of the concentration of qualitatively developed human capital: scientific and qualified personnel. What do you think about this thesis?
- I do not see any contradictions here. Indeed, Siberia and the Far East are a single macroregion, but at the same time it is also part of the whole of Russia. Therefore, it is wrong to pull out the Far East from the all-Russian economic space. These and other projects currently being implemented in the Far East: the Siberia Power pipeline, the expansion of the Baikal-Amur Mainline and the Trans-Siberian Railway, the development of the Northern Sea Route are projects that deal only partially with the Far Eastern region, they equally concern the regions of Siberia, the Urals, and the European part of Russia . There is no territorial delineation of the development of these projects, especially important for the development of the Far East.
At the same time, there is a point-based approach to development - through the territories of advanced development (TORs), through priority Far Eastern investment projects, which should become drivers for the development of these regions.
- The main principle according to which the state will create TORs and support investment projects is the ratio of funds invested by the state and the funds of private investors involved in the project: one to seven, one to ten. Who calculates the risks and profitability of these projects?
The role of the state in this story is to create conditions and infrastructure that will be interesting for investors, will allow projects to be realized even if the world market conditions are not very favorable.
- Who, in the end, will be responsible for the implementation of these projects in the parameters that were fixed at the start?
- As for responsibility, then we remember about it in the first place, and not always in a positive sense. And often the focus on responsibility restrains the initiative and causes fear of making decisions, does not allow developing ideas that could benefit.
Of course, in the end, in any case, Minskokokrazvitiya will not be able to stand apart from the responsibility for the development of the Far Eastern territories, for fulfilling the tasks set by the country's leadership, having designated the "eastern vector" as a priority direction in the development of the country.
- It is known that the model of the Russian economy is more raw. Will the projects developed on the TOPs start building a new, innovative economy? Which projects, not related to the extraction of raw materials, will develop in the Far East?
- It is wrong to not implement raw material projects in the economy in the Far East, since it is in this area that a significant number of mineral resources in Russia are concentrated. And it would not be entirely correct to abandon our own raw materials for our own industry or to increase our export opportunities.
Next to us, the TOR project "Zarechye" in Yakutia is a gas chemical production of methanol, carbamide, liquefied natural gas (LNG), these are high-tech production. In addition to quality tourist and recreational services, agricultural enterprises will be established in the Kamchatka Territory. All projects can not be listed here, but there is no doubt that the main vector of efforts, of course, will be aimed at creating conditions for such projects.
- Obviously, the development of such a number of new projects will partially employ the inhabitants of the territories on which the projects will develop. But it will require additional labor resources from other regions of the country. What, from your point of view, can help keep and simultaneously attract young people to the Far East?
- Within the framework of the Ministry of Eastern Development this year, the Agency for the Development of Human Capital will be created, which will be charged with the active involvement of the population in the territory of the Far East. The main thing is to create conditions that will attract young people to the prospects of work and life in the Far East. I mean here, first of all, not transcendental salaries and some preferences, but the opportunity to get unique professional experience and competencies, the opportunity to work in high-tech projects, thereby building a forward and successful career. Nearby are the most technologically and economically developed countries: Japan, Singapore, South Korea. You can go there to study, learn from experience, do joint projects, etc. For young people it should be interesting and attractive.
At the same time, the development of a social and cultural environment in the cities of the Far East in which young people live and work comfortably is of no small importance. Good salaries and career development prospects will not be able to keep people in areas where there is no developed sports, retail, entertainment infrastructure, social services, or a sufficient number of cultural events.
- In your opinion, will Vladivostok become the third capital of Russia? For the developing Far East, should the concentration of at least some metropolitan functions in Vladivostok possibly have a positive impact on the development of the entire region?
- I do not think that this should be done artificially. Soon, the law "On the Free Port of Vladivostok" will be considered and adopted. This is significant, in my opinion, should change the dynamics of development of the city and, in general, the Primorsky Territory.