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Export dictates approaches to ports
EastRussia has studied the statistics of shipments for the first months of 2017 year
Ports of the Far East remain in demand with Russian exporters. For the last 10 years, the discharge by the consignees of the Far Eastern Railway has increased almost by one and a half times - from 3,9 thousand to 5,7 thousand wagons daily average. At the same time, the share of export cargo in the total volume of unloading increased from 48 to 76%. The bulk of exports are through sea terminals.
Almost all large enterprises of the node were unloaded. Thus, in five months, Vostochny Port received 9,7 million tons of cargo (+ 0,5 million tons against last year's indicator), "Small Port" - 1,2 million tons (+ 0,1 million tons), "East Ural Terminal" - 1,9 Million tons (+ 0,3 million tons), East Stevedoring Company - 1,3 million tons (+ 0,2 million tons), Astafiev Terminal - 0,9 million tons (+ 0,1 million tons), Attis Enterprise - 0,7 million tons (+ 0,07 million tons). The growth in volumes was mainly due to the receipt of coal products.
In turn, “Evraz Nakhodka Sea Trade Port” unloaded at the level of 2016 of the year - 4,1 mln. Tons. This company, on the one hand, reduced the use of export coal, on the other hand, significantly increased the unloading of metals at Cape Astafieva station by more than 17%.
The transportation of petroleum products also revived. At the end of five months, the Far East tank farms increased the unloading of railroad tank cars by 2,3% to last year's level - up to 571 car per day on average. It is worth noting that in the first quarter they on the contrary showed a decline to 2016 year - by 3,4%. The fall was primarily due to unfavorable conjuncture in the external market, which led to a reduction in the export of light oil products. In recent months, the situation began to change, and in total the consignees increased the transshipment of oil cargo. Nevertheless, the dynamics of oil bases is not uniform. If RN-Nakhodkanefteprodukt LLC had an average daily unloading at last year's level, then it decreased by NNX-Primornefteprodukt by 4,8%, and Transbunker-Primorye LLC by 16%. Growth was shown by LLC Transbunker-Vanino - by 13,8% and ZAO Vostokbunker - almost twice.
In the Khabarovsk Territory, the main export channel is Vanino. Although 2,5% and 12% reduced the acceptance of cargo by the two main stevedore Daltransugol (part of SUEK) and Vanino Sea Trade Port to 8,3 million and 1,8 million tons, respectively, the capacities of enterprises today are designed for a larger amount of revenue. In particular, Daltransugol set a historical maximum by unloading 19 wagons with solid fuel or about 1400 KT. This year, a new track development facility of the terminal was commissioned, which allowed the company to fully transfer cargo operations with wagons from Vanino station (Toki park) to its own, additionally constructed, station of Terminal-100. The total unfolded length of the tracks belonging to Daltransugl reached 30 km.
However, not all stevedores are developing so actively, from here there is an imbalance between the amount of cargo transported to ports and their processing capacity. Thus, the total loading declared by exporters in the Far East in June is about 5,5 thousand wagons per day (in the five months it did not exceed 4,3 thousand). According to the head of the Far Eastern Railway Nikolay Maklygin, this volume exceeds by 1 thousand cars more than The total actual processing capacity of sea terminals, which causes certain concerns, especially during the period of road repair work.
“Under the conditions of the summer repair campaign, the carrying capacity of some sections is limited. For fruitful cooperation, we need to maintain a balance of loading and actual unloading, ”Nikolai Maklygin emphasized.
He also pointed out unevenness in the structure of the June plan. Thus, the ratio of the declared loading to the processing capacity of different ports varies from minus 100 to plus 500 cars on individual days. According to specialists of the Far Eastern Directorate of Traffic Management, the quality of such planning will inevitably lead to a complication of the operational environment, the accumulation of "abandoned" trains and the financial losses of Russian Railways due to a possible delay in the delivery of goods. Therefore, railroad workers urge the ports to respect the transport balance.
Another problem lies in the limited capacity of the most common rail infrastructure in some of the port's directions. For example, the Ussuriisk-Baranovskiy-Khasan line actually reached the limit of missing trains, providing transportation to the Posiet port and the Mahalino-Hunchun border crossing point (PRC). On its integrated development, together with the reconstruction of stations and the construction of an additional route on the Ussuriisk-Baranovskiy site, it is required about 15 billion rubles.
The lack of capacity is forecasted in the Volochaevka-Komsomolsk-Vanino direction. With the advent of new transshipment capacities, the terminals of the Vanino node after 2020 year will be able to process more than 97 million tons of cargo per year. At the same time, the shortage of the railway carrying capacity on the approaches to them will amount to 60,3 million tons. To develop the perspective cargo flow, proposals are being prepared for inclusion in the second stage of the development program of the Eastern testing site, estimated for the period from 2020 to 2025 (as is known, the first stage of the project is completed in 2019 year). In particular, it is proposed to build 275 km of second tracks on the Komsomolsk-Vanino section and electrify the entire Volochaevka-2-Komsomolsk-Vanino line. The required amount of investments is 233 billion rubles.
At present, Russian Railways, with the participation of relevant government departments of the Russian Federation, is studying the possibility of additional injections into the modernization of BAM and Transsib. Alternative financing options are also considered - taking into account the replacement of state budget funds by alternative sources, including through the possible increase in the tariff burden on shippers.