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PPP in the format of TOP
What prevents investors from developing in the Far East
At the congress “Russian week of PPP” they praised Yakutia with all their might - it was this region of the FEFD that made the most real breakthrough, rising to rating regions of the Russian Federation in terms of the level of PPP development at 49 positions and occupying 25 place. Yakutia became the leader among the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District and took a firm position in regions with an average level of PPP development. The secret of success is in the adoption of fundamental normative legal acts in the sphere of public-private partnership.
The deputy head of the Ministry of Eastern and Eastern Development, Oleg Skufinsky, commenting on the rating, noted “a very significant breakthrough in the Far Eastern regions”. “This, of course, is primarily the merit of the governors, the merit of regional teams, the merit of entrepreneurs,” he said. - It is no coincidence that Yakutia is a region with which we signed an agreement at the First International Forum of Entrepreneurs last September; the current year is declared the year of entrepreneurs, and Yakutia is in the 1 place. This is a logical development of events. ” Skufinsky promised that "next year we will be in the top ten, beyond any doubt, according to the dynamics that we are showing today."
New projects and expansion of the regulatory framework allowed the Khabarovsk Territory to take a stable position in the rating - 31 place with growth at 41 position. The Amur region took 33 place, demonstrating growth at 15 positions, Sakhalin region - 34 place (plus 3 positions), Primorsky Krai - 37 place and improvement of indicators at 39 positions. "If the federal government, regional authorities and entrepreneurs are involved in the process, realizing not only a narrow task, but developments around the perimeter, it (public-private partnership - Prim.red.) is obtained in a relatively short period. Therefore, PPP is our priority, ”Skufinsky summed up.
Based on the results of calculating the ranking of regions, the objects were divided into five groups according to the level of PPP development: regions - leaders in the level of development of PPP (60-75%), with a high level of development (45-60%), with an average level of development (35-45% ), with a low level of development (25-35%), with a very low level of development (0-25%).
According to Skufinsky, now in the Far East is implementing 61 project using public-private partnership mechanisms. Important for Минвостокразвития at this work there is a question of efficiency: for each budget ruble there should be at least seven rubles of private investments. He stressed that "we have examples with the indicator 1 to 17."
PPP models for the implementation of investment projects in the district will be used in full. "We have very serious ambitions, we want to become the best practice in Russia," he said.
During the panel discussion, representatives of the PPP Development Center, the "Far East Development Fund and the Baikal Region", regional government bodies discussed the application of PPP mechanisms in the format of advanced development territories (TORs). The principle of partnership between the state and private partnership is based on this innovative tool. In accordance with the Law on TOP, the state ensures the creation of the infrastructure necessary for residents.
According to him, "from the 61 project, implemented on the principle of PPP, 12 regional projects, 49 projects of the municipal level." He did not prioritize projects, but noted that attention was focused on "international transport corridors (Primorye-1", "Primorye-2", "Eastern bypass of Khabarovsk" Prim.red.): they give a very serious effect on the economy. "
“We analyze the cargo base, logistics flows, we work closely with investors, and when working with investors we have instruments for fixing obligations. We listen to them attentively with regard to what they need from the state, so that the investor, including a foreign one, would be comfortable coming to our territory and making money, ”the deputy minister said. Skufinsky clarified that the Ministry of Eastern Development has concluded 20 memorandums with foreign companies. “This is the beginning of the journey. The memorandum is followed by a deeper study of the issue. This is a series of Japanese, Korean, Chinese companies that are interested in the development of the Far East. And they will be chosen by those who offer the most optimal conditions for the interests of Russia, ”he said.
Investors are on the contract
The panelists talked about obstacles that hinder the implementation of PPP mechanisms. It turned out that even advanced Yakutia has a lot of unsolved problems. Despite the fact that the main value of the republic is the subsoil, Yakutia is a small region that does not have serious business focused on the domestic market. And, of course, there are many restrictions, primarily infrastructural, the Deputy Minister of Economy of the Republic Yevgeny Chekin complains.
“Investors are not in the queue. But the government of the republic is doing quite a lot of work, including informational, with investors, both with Russian and with foreign ones. It is clear that in the current moment the emphasis is on the Asian market, ”he shared with EastRussia.
Chekin explained that under the PPP model defined by Russian legislation, the initiator of the project is building its own plant, and the state is building all necessary infrastructure for the budget account of the investment fund.
He cited the example of the Inaglinsky coal complex under construction - “the first shipment of coal has already begun,” the railway to it is being built as part of budget financing. The support question concerned only the power grid infrastructure, but it has already been resolved. “Here is a situation where a distinct investor who has already invested and has not tried to leave anywhere. Therefore, the risks are minimal, ”the official continued.
According to Chekin, there are many examples where the infrastructure is built, but the commercial part has not even started. “I will not name specific cases. Such an approach, when the state, believing the initiators of the project, undertakes to undertake, for example, on the construction of a road, may turn out that nobody needs the infrastructure, except the initiator (investor) himself. Who needs a railway to the taiga? Nobody needs power grid infrastructure there either. Instead of building kindergartens for children, new hospitals, to put this money on wage increases, to build normal roads for public use, the state, having spent money on such infrastructure, simply crossed it out of the economy. We paid all taxes, and they went to an incomprehensible object in the taiga in the event that the initiator does not fulfill his obligations, ”he said. According to Chekin, the problem lies in the lack of contractual security of projects. That is why a project-contract approach is required, which the Ministry of Eastern Development is proposing.
“The state should, as an entrepreneur, look at any project - whether it is beneficial or not to implement one or another infrastructure project. If there is no point, then you should not take it, ”the deputy minister concluded.
TORES are a good thing
The panelists agreed that business may sometimes be interested in the development of PDA not only as a resident, but as an investment partner in creating the infrastructure of the site. However, finding initiators of infrastructure construction in some regions is not easy.
Tuktarov also agreed with the Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Property and Land Relations of the Kamchatka Territory Irina Bogdanova. In Kamchatka, she said, "the PPP mechanism is in its infancy".
"At the same time, we have prepared all the necessary regulatory and legal framework and are considering a number of projects that can be implemented on the principle of using the PPP mechanism," she said.
"What prevents investors from attracting? In my opinion, today there is no real understanding of the return on investment. The investor should understand, at the expense of which he will return his investments, "Bogdanova said. According to her, the example of Yakutia to implement PPP mechanisms should be adopted.
Nevertheless, experts are sure that it is necessary to work with the investor, and the investment climate is created by people.