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Place of "new townspeople"
Sketch of the portrait of the "ponappriehavshih" Khabarovsk
Professor, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Culturology of the Pacific State University, Doctor of Philosophy
Against the backdrop of the not very pleasing demographic dynamics in the region, everyone has already been told about the vital necessity for the development of Russia, there are islands of stability and confidence: the administrative capital is Khabarovsk and the prospective economic capital is Vladivostok. And if the growth of the population of Vladivostok is not great (the main growth was in 2010-2014 years), then Khabarovsk from 2011 year, judging by the statistics of regional statistics, shows a stable increase in 0,3% per year. Not much, but for the Far East with its eternal movement from "leave" to "run" - this is quite optimistic. With sad 578 thousand inhabitants of the city grew to 618 thousand people. The population of Khabarovsk suburban area is also growing. Slightly, but growing.
True, growth occurs, mainly, not at the expense of natural increase (excess of birth rate over mortality), but due to migration. Migration brings in 6 times a greater contribution to the positive dynamics than the maternity home of the city. But the very fact of excess of birth rate over mortality can not but rejoice. For quite recently the picture was completely different. And yet, the basis of population growth, both Khabarovsk and Vladivostok, remains a migration inflow.
However, it is worthwhile to realize, more precisely, to emphasize the quite obvious circumstance - the population growth in the city does not mean absence of outflow. The point is that the influx exceeds it. In other words, the "old" Khabarovsk residents leave, like all the Far Easterners. They leave so rapidly that this affects the cost of housing, especially in its lease, which for 2017 year decreased by 20%. According to expert estimates, we are talking about 2-3 thousand people a year. They are replaced by other people. And these people, at least in Khabarovsk and Vladivostok, are more numerous than those who leave. Who are they? Where from? How does their arrival affect the life of the city? Maybe, the mechanisms of attracting the population, about which Minvostokrazvitiya tells, were made? Then why only here? Let's try to understand.
Of course, the most visible and discussed new Khabarovsk residents are people from Central Asia. Only with this region of the world the Far East of Russia has a positive balance of migration. During the period of obese "zero" years, they regularly visited the region, including Khabarovsk. Someone, not many at all, stayed here, stayed, joined in local life. This turned out to be all the easier, because in 30-e - 60-s the territory of the Far East was populated by the whole country of the USSR. Accordingly, among immigrants there were quite a few people from the republics (today - countries) of Central Asia and Transcaucasia. Unlike the situation in the European part of the country and, mainly, the capital cities, they were not "come in large numbers here", but the most that neither is local. Often much more "local" than the graduates of the central universities who arrived at the end of the 80-x years. At the same time, each of them remained a native of his aul or kishlak, a member of the distant community. It is understandable that the arriving in the region a native of the same community could count on and count on the help of a fellow countryman.
Since the demographic explosion in the Central Asian countries, which tore the social structure as far back as the 70-ies, as well as the process of salinization of soils, the uncontrollable pursuit of "white gold" in the region continues, all new groups of people are pushed out of their native village or town. Many continue to live in two houses. Some become Khabarovsk citizens. However, statistics consider both the first and second residents of the city.
People are different. But most of them are representatives of mass working professions. Few are built into business structures to relatives or countrymen. This is a mini-hotel, catering, small wholesale trade. A significant group arrived to work on construction sites. But the construction is gradually curtailing. Former builders create repair teams, offer their services to dacha and gardening partnerships and other suburban real estate owners. Recently, the profession of a commercial bus driver has become a mass profession among the new Khabarovsk citizens from the countries of Central Asia.
As a rule, this group of new townspeople communicates with a community of their own kind. Its here are meeting places, traditions of spending free time. It is natural. Quite recently these people lived according to completely different rules. Integration is slow and not always successful. After all, the "old" Khabarovsk citizens are not in a hurry to open their arms to the newly arrived. Quibbles and outright extortion, as interviews with recent settlers show, are also lacking. But the descendants of the countries of Central Asia, although more noticeable than others, by no means constitute the bulk of the new townspeople. These migrants make up only 10-12% of new townspeople. Who are the others? Really happy owners of the Far Eastern hectare, who moved from the hot and overpopulated Kuban? It seems that they are not.
It is easy to understand. One has only to look at the dynamics of the population of most of the cities and towns of the region. Nikolaevsk-on-Amur has lost three thousand people in recent years. In Vanino, where in the "peak" lived more than 21000 people, today lives a little more than 15 thousand. The same picture in other cities. Even in the "city of presidential attention" Komsomolsk-on-Amur over the past decade, the population has declined by more than 25 thousand residents. And the process of outflow continues.
The wealthiest or most desperate people go straight to the west. They depart from the region in the traditional for the Far Eastern capital or south of Russia. Someone is leaving to the south - to China, to South Korea, to Thailand. But for many and many such a step is impossible. Not enough money. I do not want to break up relations with my circle. Afraid to leave the familiar climate. Yes, you never know. Such people and send their feet to Vladivostok or Khabarovsk. The choice between the largest cities in the region depends on random circumstances: the presence of acquaintances, the scope of activities, the cost of moving and much more. It is important that the regional capitals are increasingly becoming centers of attraction of the population in the region.
Here the main medical institutions are concentrated, where you can get qualified help. Here, higher salaries, more money, and hence more jobs. In Khabarovsk and Vladivostok there are the main state structures of regional and federal level, which until recently were a very desirable place of employment. More here and the media, more theaters, cinemas, bars, cafes. Yes, more than that. That is why people from the outskirts of the Far Eastern Federal District come here, predetermining the growth of the population of these cities, replacing the retiring "old townspeople" with themselves. It is important that there are more universities and colleges here. Students who come from the periphery, do not want to return home after graduation. On the contrary, they use the years of training mainly to "get hold of the city", find work, housing, support.
Is it bad? Probably not. This process, with small variations, is now taking place throughout the country. Cities draw a village, large cities pull the population from the whole subject of the federation, and even from the macroregion. Capitals beckoning lights are felt even at the other end of the country. All clear. Moving to a larger city, in fact, is a form of overcoming geographical disparity. Let not the migrants themselves, but their children will live better, brighter, more interesting and richer.
There are several problems. The first is psychological. The stronger the differences between "old" and "new" citizens, the higher the level of social tension. We already see this in the capitals, in the cities of the south of Russia. In the Far East, the situation is not so acute. The region has always been inhabited by migrants, which differ in their level of culture and traditions. Therefore, there was a special type of social community that I once described as a "flow culture", a way of communication that allows for joint activities that level out cultural differences. And the differences between local and alien from the regional periphery are not so great. Because we can consider the first problem is not so acute.
A more acute problem is connected with the fact that young, active, professionally successful people leave as a rule, only then "evoking" their parents. But in their place come to the townspeople of lower qualification, with a lower level of ambition, a lower cultural level. Up to some limit, to calculate which would be a separate interesting task, the city grinds the visitors. They after a few years master the urban forms of communication, behavior, somehow built into the professional structure. The decline in the overall level of urban life is slow and inconspicuous. But here the limit is passed. And in place of the city with its ebullient cultural and economic life there are slow "rural" communities that happened to be on one spatial patch, which retained the name of the former city. In such cities, development is possible. But only from under the stick. They are very slow.
And, finally, the third problem - the resources of the periphery are not unlimited. The concept - "women still narozhayut" - today, alas, ceases to work. As a result, the region for not very long time is stretching to two urban agglomerations with a gaping emptiness around them. It is possible that from the economic point of view this is not the worst option. The shift method of developing hard-to-reach territories in many cases justifies itself. It turns out to be much more efficient than the resource-intensive obzhivanie harsh expanses. But for a person who has lived here all or most of life, this option causes an instinctive protest. Not from any rational considerations. It's just insulting for the power.