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Not for all

Will the TOR regime work for single-industry cities?

According to the legislation on territories of priority development, for the first three years such economic zones can be created only in the Far East of our country. The exception is made only for single-industry towns - in them the TOR modes can be introduced now. True, under the condition of one managerial "squiggle": if the Russian Far East is responsible for the TORs in the Far East, then the Ministry of Economic Development is responsible for TORs in single-industry cities (even if they are located in the Far East).

Not for all
Management features overlap with enforcement. For example, if in the Torahs of Minvostok the “threshold” of entry for residents is 500 thousand rubles, then in the Torahs of the Ministry of Economy - 5 million rubles. 12 TOR was established along the line of the Ministry of Economy; 3 TOR: under the Ministry of Economy: Gukovo (Rostov region), Naberezhnye Chelny (Republic of Tatarstan), Usolye-Sibirskoe (Irkutsk region). Ministry of Development is reporting on almost half a million rubles
Investment applications in TORs; The Ministry of Economic Development in this regard is less hasty: the department does not hurry up with reports and was preoccupied with the almost individual preparation of management teams under the TORs. Will work on this example work "long harnessed, but quickly go" - time will tell. The history of the application of the Trans-Baikal Territory to the TOP in Krasnokamensk is, unfortunately, still lacking a clear understanding that TORs will be able to give Russian monocities.

Today, the administration of Transbaikalia is viewing more than 20 investment projects that can be implemented in Krasnokamensk in the conditions of TOP: production of sausage products based on Daursky meat-packing plant, expansion of the local dairy plant, creation of timber processing plant, and Krasnokamensk hydrometallurgical plant. At the same time, at the meeting of the working group of the Ministry for Economic Development and Trade of the Russian Federation on the creation and operation of territories for outrunning socio-economic development in monoprofile Russian municipalities in March, the authorities of the Trans-Baikal Territory put forward the following condition for granting the status of a TOP in the city of Krasnokamensk: prepare a city management team that , In turn, according to the results
Training, should develop a project for its development.

Experts interviewed by EastRussia note that such a position of the agency can mean a very long pause in relation to the TOR project in Krasnokamensk.

“It seems an extremely dubious prospect of granting the status of TOR to the city of Krasnokamensk. Since, firstly, the federal center is now focused on the support of those regions whose authorities have already taken enough initiative, a number of investment projects have been successfully implemented. And the authorities of the Trans-Baikal Territory today have no initiative. Secondly, support by the federal center now turns out to those regions on whose territory their authorities have recently
certain investors were attracted. Currently, the management staff of the Zabaikalsky Territory as such has no experience in attracting new investors, ”said EastRussia, a professor at the Department of Economic and Social Geography of Russia at the Faculty of Geography of Moscow State University. Mv Lomonosova Olga Kuznetsova.

"It is completely unclear what is the expediency of granting the status of a TOP to the city of Krasnokamensk. Within this city, the largest uranium production, not only in Russia but also in the world, is located - Priargunskoye Production Mining and Chemical Association (PJSC PGHKhO). The given enterprise is strategically important for our country, and, at the same time, with the proper operation it is able to "feed" the entire Transbaikalian region in addition to Krasnokamensk itself. The reason for the fact that now the Priargun association does not do this is, on the one hand, its minimum funding from the state, on the other hand - the illegal withdrawal of funds from its own turnover. At the same time, some dissatisfaction on the part of the region with the work of this enterprise is caused by the fact that it causes great harm to its ecology. But it is likely that many of the claims of the region to the environmental friendliness of this


enterprises are unfounded. In addition to the largest uranium producer, there is a branch of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute in Krasnokamensk - unlike many other single-industry towns of the Baikal region and the Far East, it has a unique opportunity to raise personnel for its city-forming enterprise, and thus keep young people in its place, "- Said Director of the Institute of Demography, Migration and Regional Development Dmitry Panyukov.

In the opinion of the expert, trying to solve the problems of Krasnokamensk, it is necessary to continue developing the main city-forming enterprise of Krasnokamensk - PIMCU, and not introduce a TOP mode on its territory: with such a unique resource potential, there is no special need for external investment.

In general, today experts agree that granting the status of TOP is not an option for all Russian monocities, including Baikal and Far Eastern ones.

"Such a measure of state support, like the provision of the TOP regime, can be effective for a number of Russian monocities. In the event that as a result of the introduction of the TOR regime, investors will come to them. It is a single-industry city in such Russian regions where local authorities have a clear vision of the circle of potential investors, and also where there are no factors that seriously impede the construction of new enterprises. In particular, the
undeveloped road network or the deplorable state of the housing and social fund, "Olga Kuznetsova said.

According to the expert, “for example, even with the introduction of the TOR mode in the monotowns of Yamal, the appearance of any industries with high added value seems completely unrealistic. But in this context, it should be noted that the introduction of the TOR mode will not help some single-industry cities and after the construction of the road network in them - due to the high cost of transporting the products produced in them to the consumer. ”

"The expediency of granting the status of TOP should be determined separately for each particular single-industry city. And when it is defined, it is mainly to build on the town-forming enterprise of the monotown city - its scale and prospects. Modern Russian realities are such that in some single-city towns the city-forming enterprises either completely died out for some objective reasons, including the lack of demand for their products, or are in the process of doing so. At the same time as in other Russian monocities, in particular in the Baikal region and in the Far East, the city-forming enterprises work completely in normal mode and have prospects for development, "Dmitry Panyukov is confident.

The interviewed experts agree that the hopes of many regions of the Baikal region and the Far East for the bright future of their single-industry towns as a result of the introduction of the TOP mode in them are, to put it mildly, illusory. To reduce illusions - we need clear criteria and a clear understanding of perspectives - maybe it will appear during the time management teams are trained?