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Well, hello, hectare
How Minskvokrazvitiya realized what many thought
So, it happened - 1-th of February, as it was established by law, the third stage of the "Far Eastern hectare" initiative began: it became possible not only for the Far East, but for every Russian as well. The idea, as was confirmed by EastRussia, is still a lot of both opponents and supporters, and the idea to distribute free land among Russians was visited by all the parliamentary parties of Russia. To bring the idea to the stage of the working mechanism, albeit not without resistance of the bureaucratic system, Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Trutnev and Minvostokrazvitiya managed. Now it remains only to watch how concrete examples of the use of "hectares" appear - either successful or failing.
Citizens of the date, of course, waited. On emergency interest in land in the Far East 1 February could be judged on the availability of the site Надальнийвосток.рф. The system rigidly hovered even on fast "optics" in the capital - probably there was a significant influx of users. But even with the "braking" system, according to some information, the number of applications on this day exceeded 2-3 thousand.
Statistics on the requests - who these people are, where they are from, where they declared the land and for what purpose - they are sure, will be published in the next few days by the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia. Experts interviewed by EastRussia suggest that the two categories of users will be the most significant: they are Far Easterners who have been able to take a hectare in a "foreign" region (for example, residents of Yakutia and the Khabarovsk Territory in Primorsky Krai), as well as representatives of the most populated regions of the Russian Federation Moscow and St. Petersburg). And if the activity of the former is generally explained by the awareness of the program (in the Far East the topic has been actively discussed for six months already), the proportion of the metropolitan residents will be significant, if only because of the huge population of the capital itself.
Some interesting things already sound. For example, according to Sergey Kachaev, deputy head of the Minsk region, "at the very start of the project, it was great news for us that a lot of sites are being taken for beekeeping, especially in the Amur and Jewish autonomous regions. There were pilot municipal formations, in which more than 50% of sites were taken for beekeeping. " Sergey Kachaev explains the extraordinary interest in beekeeping among the Far Eastern countries by the fact that the products are especially in demand in the PRC - and some beekeepers who have received land in the summer have already managed to sell their neighbors' hectares to their neighbors.
EastRussia Help. To date, over 36 thousand applications have been submitted for the purchase of the Far Eastern hectare. The Far East got more than 4,8 thousand sites, almost the same number are at the stage of clearance. Leaders on receipt of applications for a "Far Eastern hectare" today are the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Primorsky Krai and the Sakhalin Region. The picture of the future use of distributed Far Eastern hectares can not be understood today: when applying for a given "Far Eastern hectare", it is not necessary to enter information on its future use, one year after the registration of the contract for "hectare".
From Stolypin to LDPR
The rate of implementation of the project is unique for Russian bureaucratic practice. The idea was first announced two years ago - at the beginning of 2015. The year was spent on the development and adoption of the law, half a year on commissioning: programming of the information system and training of regional officials. Last June, the system started up in test mode. As a result, a unique state option is available to every citizen of Russia. And still - a precedent, as in the field of regulation of the system of land relations, everything can be "broken down" and built in a new way.
Meanwhile, the idea itself is not something that is not new. And if the analogy of the "Far Eastern hectare" with the extinction of Stolypin at the beginning of the 20th century is actively used, then not much is remembered about the proposals of hectares that have been heard in recent years from the LDPR, the Communist Party and Fair Russia. And the initiatives were very amusing.
In December 2013, the party of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation announced the idea to give every adult Russian a land all over Russia from the stock of state and municipal land funds for lifelong use. The size of the allotment was supposed to be set from 1 to 1,5 ha, which the party justified as follows: "1 ha is the minimum size of a land plot on which it is possible to create a self-healing ecosystem". Directly under construction on each site it was suggested to take no more than 10% of the area. The earth could have been inherited, but it could not be sold - only, according to the idea of the Communist Party, to give back to the state. Get in the inheritance could not be more than one site. At the same time, you could choose the site for free receipt yourself. Directly by the allocation of sites, according to the idea of the Communist Party, regional and local authorities were to be engaged. The CPRF proposed not to impose any taxes on products grown or received on allocated hectares. What would correspond to the goal of allocating free land throughout Russia - not the development of entrepreneurship, but the provision of living conditions and human nutrition, the life of the family, children and grandchildren.
Somewhat earlier, in the 2013 year, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia also launched a similar initiative. The idea was about the same, but the goal was slightly different. According to the Liberal Democrats, the provision of plots of 1-1,5 per hectare per person would restore the fertility of agricultural land, revive the village, improve the supply of citizens with ecologically clean food, settle the depopulated land far from large shopping centers, get rid of poverty, and strengthen the institution families. As can be seen, the Liberal Democratic Party saw in the allocation of hectares not a separate, but a multiplicative effect. As for the settlement of “deserted lands” - so here is a direct analogy with the initiative for the Far East.
After some time, in January of 2015, the third parliamentary party, Fair Russia, was engaged in the development of not just ideas, but the whole bill. The project bore a very “speaking” name - “On the Land”. The bill provided for the allocation of free land area of up to 100 acres, but not to all who wish, but to strictly certain categories of citizens. Namely - deserved or socially unprotected. At the same time, specific opportunities for using plots were prescribed in the law. They would be intended for individual housing construction, private farms, summer cottage construction and farming, agricultural production, farming, peasant farming and agriculture, agricultural use. For the first 5 years, according to the bill, the plots were provided for rent, then, subject to their intended use, they were registered as property. The purpose of the draft law was to settle remote areas of Russia, first of all - abandoned villages and villages.
Actually, it was at this time and started the epic with the "Far Eastern hectare." Unlike the above projects, the idea of allocating a free plot of land in the Far East was almost immediately brought to the level of the president of Russia, which ensured her rapid implementation. Whether Deputy Prime Minister Yury Trutnev, who proposed the "Far Eastern hectare" proposed by Vladimir Putin to Putin, the achievements of any Russian parties or reached them himself will probably remain a mystery forever.
Optimists and skeptics
However, there were, and there are, many more skeptics about the "Far Eastern hectare", and there are many more than the optimists. "Natalia Zubarevich, director of the regional program of the Independent Institute of Social Policy, told EastRussia:" There is a steady trend towards a decrease in its population in the Far East. You will not change it, including land measures, including the "Far Eastern hectare." The number of applications for it is already less than expected, let's see what will be its results after the start of distribution to all Russians. At least in some way effective agricultural measure from the point of view of the population in the Far East, I see the provision of various benefits and privileges to those who live around its big cities and are already actively engaged in agriculture. "Like preferential loans for the purchase of the same agricultural equipment" .
The set of arguments for pessimists is quite serious. Even if you do not take the prospects of the program (will - will not take or move), there are a number of completely predictable risks. The first among them is the risk of imposing plots of new owners on someone's land, the rights to which were formalized earlier, but not entered in the cadastre. In this case, courts and unjustified hopes of new owners. The second is the accuracy of positioning in the electronic system. Already known cases where the site "circled" by the user on the Internet, in fact turned out to be quite a different place, instead of land - on the river surface. The third risk is the combination among themselves of the purposes of use of sites by the users who have issued the adjacent sites.
There is also an argument in the camp of optimists. Minister of the Russian Federation for the Development of the Far East Alexander Galushka, for example, operates with VTsIOM data: a recent poll showed that 6,5% of Russians are determined to participate in the program. "Even 6,5% is more than 10 million people, which is obviously very, very much in relation to 6,2 million people in the Far East, just as it is obvious that gradually this potential will be realized, gradually this interest will be converted into direct Getting a Far Eastern hectare, "he says.
Alexey Timchenko, Chairman of the Primorsky regional branch of Business Russia, believes that "the project is an effective mechanism to attract labor and investment to the territory of the Far Eastern Federal District, which currently has the lowest population density." According to him, "it is practical implementation - the speed of land registration that is important - the availability of resources - electrical and thermal networks, water sources and so on - is of great importance."
Interestingly - contrary to popular belief that hectares are issued exclusively in the open field, the system has many sites along the roads, within the boundaries of settlements that have a good infrastructure. According to the interlocutors of EastRussia, such sites can be difficult to find (all the same the territory of the region - over 600 million hectares, and how to find the "same one" among them is a very exciting question). But they are, and in the near future it is unlikely they will be disassembled.
"Like any phenomenon or project, the" Far Eastern "hectare has its opposite side. But if a lot is said about its back side today, then it's not good for some reason, for some reason, "said Yevgeny Plisetskaya, deputy director of the Institute for Regional Studies and Urban Planning of the National Research University" Higher School of Economics ". - In the meantime, it is distinguished by a number of launching and not unique, but good moments. For example, the spread to all Russians and the possibility of long-term use of a hectare. Yes, there are unprecedented measures included in the "Far East" hectare project - tax incentives for its development, broad organizational support from the Minvostokrazvitiya, simplicity of registration in the framework of obtaining a land plot. At the same time, the fact that for only one day of granting an opportunity to receive a hectare to all Russians, corresponding applications from them were submitted by 2500, indicates that they associate great opportunities with the "Far Eastern" hectare. "
Thus, the picture of the "Far Eastern" hectare is still controversial. It remains to see the future specific successful or failed projects of using hectares in the Far East, so that it becomes complete.