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Sow according to the state
Provision of agro-industry with state finances lags behind the needs of small producers
In the midst of sowing, far from all the Far Eastern farmers were able to receive the promised state support in the form of concessional loans and subsidies. The reason is bureaucratic red tape when processing applications. Nevertheless, the regional authorities are optimistic. EastRussia understood the nuances of state support for agriculture in the Far East.
Sergei Titov, head of the peasant farm of the same name from the Birobidzhansky district of the Jewish Autonomous Region (EAO), specializes in growing soybeans, potatoes and grains. Sowing in the area began in March. "I planned to buy a tractor by this time, in January I applied to Roselkhozbank for a government-subsidized loan at 5% per annum. But the application was lost in the process of agreeing bank clerks with officials of the federal Ministry of Agriculture. In the district administration, in the regional government, in the bank itself, all my questions were only sympathetically dismissed. And the sowing is already in full swing. I spit on the whole thing. He withdrew the application. I took money from friends and relatives and bought a tractor, "he says.
According to the farmer, in the Birobidzhan region of the Jewish Autonomous Region many of his colleagues have not even started sowing, since they do not have the available funds for the purchase of fuel and lubricants and the necessary equipment.
In a similar situation was Sergei Titov's colleague from Khabarovsk Territory - an individual entrepreneur Dmitry Goryunov, owner of a planted area of a thousand hectares: "I applied for a subsidized loan back in February: you need two million rubles to purchase fuel and herbicides. Already - April and no money. Although by the rules, they must give their consent or refusal within six days! .. Apparently, it will have to be wrenched out at the expense of some other sources. "
Dmitry is not going to withdraw the application. He hopes that, nevertheless, the Russian Agricultural Bank will approve the loan to him as a bona fide client. Here are just “a spoon for dinner is good, and sovereigns money is already viscously painful ...”.
Both farmers, Sergey and Dmitry, complain about the inaccessibility of other forms of state support, which regional authorities cheerfully report to both the EAO and the Khabarovsk Territory.
So, according to Sergei Titov, subsidies from the state budget for partial costs for leasing agricultural equipment for farmers officially exist in the EAO, but in fact - no. Dmitry Goryunov notes that in Khabarovsk Krai this kind of support is already not officially envisaged.
In the EAO and Khabarovsk Krai this year, to the great disappointment of farmers, this type of subsidy, such as "payments per hectare" (state support, not related to production indicators of crop production, designed to compensate agricultural producers for part of the cost of various works - the abbreviated name "unrelated support") was canceled. . The cancellation concerns soybean - the most popular and profitable agricultural crop in the Far East. For comparison, in the Khabarovsk Territory unrelated support for soybean was 2000 rubles per hectare last year, and in the neighboring EAO only 300 is a consequence of the difference in the budget revenues of the two Far Eastern subjects.
EastRussia Help. All subjects of the Russian Federation in the Far East, except for the Amur Region, entered the list of 29 regions whose lands are classified as unfavorable for agriculture. According to the Expert-Analytical Center of Agribusiness, the size of the sown areas of the Far Eastern Federal District as of 2016 year amounted to 1,88 million hectares, or 2,4% of all the sown areas of Russia. Crop production in the Russian Far East has traditionally been characterized by high soybean harvesting: about 52% of all soybean harvest in the country. The level of self-sufficiency of the Far East for vegetables - 58%, grain - 79%, meat - 25%, milk - 44%.
Instead of a bank - gangs
A farmer from the Amur Region Oksana Chatskaya says that she was forced to close her IP and move to her personal subsidiary farm because of debts that fell on her like from a cornucopia after the memorable flood of 2013. "I have received no compensation from the regional authorities, which were so much talked about in the media at that time. Charter uselessly embroider bureaucratic thresholds, just decided to start with entrepreneurship ", - she notes bitterly.
The head of the Bondar AA farm, Alexander Bondar, although he lives in the very south of the Far East, in Primorye, has also thought about closing his vegetable-growing business more than once. “I am deadly tired of the chronic lack of medical equipment. It is expensive to take a regular bank loan at 15-17% per annum, and a subsidized one is so much bureaucratic red tape, reports and a headache that it costs more. Unbound support promised to give out before sowing. It is still not there. For all appeals to the agricultural department of the region one answer: “Wait!”. ” Compensation for floods, which occur almost every year in our climate, is also almost impossible to rely on, ”Alexander complains.
Many agricultural producers, he said, solve the problem of lack of liquidity by loans from each other or from acquaintances from other spheres of business: "Some do not even mind borrowing from local bandits, unlike banks, they often lend without interest and always - without delay ".
In many respects, the farmers of Kamchatka and Sakhalin also agree with the opinion of their colleagues from the Amur and Primorye.
“Subsidized loans and other forms of state support for a small agricultural producer are in fact very difficult to access,” said Yury Grachev, general director of Ovoschevod, LLC (Kamchatka Krai).
And Alexander Dukhanin, the head of the Rus farm (Sakhalin region), compared the farming business — in terms of financial cost and unpredictability — to a suitcase without a handle: “It’s miserable to leave, it’s hard to carry.”
From the governor's bell tower
It is not excluded that it is the inefficient organization of financial support at the expense of the state budget of the bulk of agricultural producers (small farms in general, as banks and government bodies tend to treat more favorably to large agroholdings) led the Far Eastern agro industry in the fall of the industry (-2016% ) against the background of its growth in the all-Russian scale (+ 1,6%) compared to the previous year.
EastRussia Help. In general, the support of agricultural producers in the territory of the Russian Federation is determined by the federal state program for the development of agriculture and regulation at 2013-2020. In addition, on the model of the federal in each subject of the Russian Federation also operates its own similar program, taking into account the regional specifics of agriculture. In 2017, the government of the Russian Federation allocates more than 216 billion rubles for the development of the agro-industrial sector. The money will be distributed according to a different scheme than in previous years. If earlier the tranches were sent for specific programs, then in 2017 the full amount for the development of agriculture, including insurance preferences, subsidizing of loans, assistance to farmers and peasant households, gardening and livestock breeding sectors, is transferred to the entity. The scheme was called "a single regional subsidy."
Regional authorities do not find the process of getting state support by farmers fatal bureaucratic, note its gradual improvement and look optimistically at the prospects of the Far Eastern agrarian sector. For example, in the Department of Agriculture and Food of the Primorsky Territory high hopes are placed on a new scheme for concessional lending to the industry, introduced by the Russian government from 1 January 2017. We are speaking about the loan already subsidized at the expense of the state budget with an interest rate up to 5%.
“The novelty lies in the fact,” explains the head of the department, Alexey Taran, “that subsidies are directly received by banks, which will issue cheap loans to farmers. Prior to this, the concessional lending procedure was more cumbersome and less rational: first, farmers took the usual loan from a bank with a traditionally high interest rate for Russia, and then waited for subsidies from the state, partially compensating for this rate. Waiting was delayed for months. The new scheme is designed to increase the availability of credit and reduce the financial burden on the farmer. ”
But not every farmer can get a subsidized loan. A potential borrower (as in the old scheme) must meet a number of requirements: not be in the process of reorganization or liquidation, not have restrictions on economic activities, have tax residency status and be registered in the territory of the Russian Federation, do not have overdue (unresolved) tax arrears , fees and other obligatory payments to the budget and extra-budgetary funds. In addition, meet the requirements of an authorized creditor bank.
According to the Primorye Governor Vladimir Miklushevsky, in 2017, the main state support measures (3,2 billion rubles from the federal and regional budgets) will be aimed at improving the financial sustainability of agricultural enterprises, subsidizing dairy farming, technical and technological modernization of production. family livestock farms and crop production.
Vyacheslav Shport, Governor of the Khabarovsk Territory, expresses satisfaction with the way in the region specialized programs of supporting business in the countryside: "We are actively issuing grants to farmers, there is a program for the construction of houses in rural areas, support measures in the form of payment for construction materials. According to the announced plans of the governor, in 2017 in the province there will be a complete inventory of all agricultural lands, after which the agricultural producers will be offered ready-made land plots that are legally formalized. In addition, the region will enter the federal program for the development of land reclamation. And then "farmers who are engaged in the restoration of previously drained lands, will be able to count on compensation up to 95% of their costs from the federal budget."
In the plans of the governor of the Amur region, Alexander Kozlov, this year "to send to the agricultural production of the region about 1,43 billion rubles, including 986,8 million rubles from the federal budget and 443,6 - from the regional". Priority areas of the industry remain, according to the head of the region, the construction of high-tech livestock complexes and a plant for deep processing of soy. The area of crops of this culture is planned to be increased by 25 thousand hectares, bringing to 920 thousand hectares.
Alexander Levintal, the governor of the Jewish Autonomous Region, expresses his readiness to support the producers of agricultural products under conditions that are favorable for them, while emphasizing the family contract: "The region will develop family farms, since they allow solving one of the main rural problems - employment of the population, but in addition Provide residents with environmentally friendly dairy products, such as milk for children's institutions. " For example, for the Kaplun family farm, not only grants from the federal budget were provided, but also the money of the regional program. The acquisition of livestock and equipment was financed in each direction by 95% from the regional budget. And only by 5% added farming. "
The Governor of the Sakhalin Region Oleg Kozhemyako notes that in the region under his jurisdiction, dairy and meat cattle breeding, poultry farming and other areas of the agrarian sector are actively developing, and the volume of support for agriculture in the coming years will not only be preserved but also increased. "Thanks to the implementation of the regional program for the development of agriculture, and also by increasing the yield in general for potato farming enterprises, we plan to collect more than 937 tons. In addition, this season we will plant more forage crops: annual and perennial grasses, winter crops, maize - in order to increase the feed harvesting capacity by one and a half times - up to 150 thousand tons, "the head of the island region promises.
The agro-industrial sector of Yakutia, Kamchatka, the Magadan region and the Chukotka Autonomous Region (PJSC) due to the severity of the local climate is less developed than in the south of the Far East, and is focused more on animal husbandry (reindeer herding first) than on crop production. But the local authorities declare significant state support to peasant, including livestock farms.
According to Peter Alekseev, First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Agriculture and Food Policy of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), as of March, 22 agricultural producers from 94, who submitted applications, were receiving subsidies for unrelated support. The amount of subsidies granted is 9,96 million rubles or 22,9% of all budget funds provided for in 2017 for this type of state support.
State support for reindeer herding, according to the information of the republican government, is increasing year by year, which allowed to stop the decline in population and stabilize the number of deer (156 814 heads in farms of all categories at the beginning of the year). The amount of subventions to municipal areas to support northern domestic reindeer herding in the current year compared to the past increased by almost a third and amounted to 694 million rubles. The lion's share fell on the republican budget - 651 million rubles, the rest - on the federal budget.
The amount of budget funds allocated in 2016 to the development of the agro-industry of Kamchatka exceeded 1,4 billion rubles. According to the Governor of the Kamchatka Territory Vladimir Ilyukhin, this made it possible to implement very important for the region sectoral projects: "Creation of the first broiler meat production in Kamchatka and the construction of a pig farm" Kamchatsky ". In addition, 4 District in 2016 year received funds for the reconstruction of livestock buildings. We also update the machinery necessary for the operation of agricultural enterprises, support peasant farms and family livestock farms: last year they were allocated 50 and 30 million rubles, respectively. " The size of the branch state support this year, the governor counts, will not be lower than last year.
According to the Governor of the Magadan Region, Vladimir Pechenogo, the region continues to grow the volume of state support for agriculture (300 million rubles in 2006), in parallel, there is an increase in the volume of industrial products. "Several years ago we set the task of increasing the production of fresh poultry meat - broilers. This production has been restored. With our support this year the incubator was put into operation, the construction of the fourth workshop of the poultry breeding complex was completed. And if a few years ago the indicator for this type of product was zero, now we produce about 600 tons of poultry meat. "
The head of Kolyma also notes the positive dynamics in the reindeer-breeding sector: “After the crisis year 2014, in the last two years, the number of reindeer in the industry has increased. In the 2015 year - on the 1383 head (10,9%), and in the 2016 year - on the 1172 (8,3%). At the beginning of 2017, a herd of domestic deer in the Magadan region amounted to 15,2 thousand heads. By this time it was
sold 13,8 tons of venison meat. Annual support for reindeer husbandry amounted to more than 40 million rubles. ”
The basis of agriculture in the Chukotka Autonomous Region is domestic reindeer herding. The region has 14 municipal deer farms and two farms. According to the information of the government of PJSC, the volume of government allocations to the industry has consistently increased over the past 15 years (in 2016, the district allocated 886,6 million rubles to finance the industry, in 2017, state support grew by 5,3%, having already reached 934,2 million rubles) It was said about reindeer herds - each year, reindeer herding farms lost more than 2014 thousand heads up to 10. In 2015, this trend was stopped, as reported by the district government, through the implementation of a program to support reindeer farms designed for the 2014-2020 years. The total herd of deer was kept in 2015 at the level of 185 thousand heads. But then it began to decrease again. As of 1 January 2017, the livestock has decreased to 155 160 heads.
Forecasts and truths
The above judgments and estimates indicate a striking difference between the perception of the state of affairs in the regional agro-industry by ordinary farmers and senior officials. Everyone, as they say, has its own truth. But according to statistics, which, incidentally, is also not the perfect truth measure - over the past few years, the overall industry picture has shifted for the better: the share of DFO in the total agricultural production in the country increased from 2011 on 2015 four times from 1 to 4%. And today it remains at about the same level. And the recognized leader of the regional agro-industrial complex - Primorsky Krai - demonstrated during this period the rates of sectoral growth two times higher than the national average.
In other words, the Far East has much to do with the development of agriculture, I am sure Galina Perminova, an associate professor of the School of Economics and Management of the Far Eastern Federal University.
"Given that the total area of arable land of the Far Eastern Federal District is 2,3 million hectares, pastures and hayfields - about 1,8 million hectares, and climatic conditions allow to grow almost all cereals here, in particular rice, soybeans and corn, the most popular and demanded in the countries The Asia-Pacific region (APR), then the Russian government has every chance of realizing at the expense of the DFO its plans for import substitution in agriculture on a countrywide scale. In particular, to reduce the share of imported meat from 21,6% to 7,7%, milk and dairy products - from 23,6 to 16,6%, vegetables - from 14,6 to 10,1%, "the scientist-economist predicts.
In her projections, Galina Perminova relies on small family farms as well as on large foreign and Russian agricultural holdings that established their residents in Primorsky, Priamurye and Sakhalin Primorsky Development Territories (TOP): Hokkaido Corporation, Rusagro, Mercy Invest Group "," Chernigov agroholding "," South of Russia "," GreenAgro "," Amurprom "and others.
But will there be a cozy feel for small farms against the backdrop of giants and their subsidiaries? This question remains open. The participants of the International Investment Forum "Agro Far East and Siberia", which will open on 28 April in Vladivostok, will try to answer it among many other issues of concern to the industry. Within the framework of the event, prospects for the development of medium and small agricultural enterprises will be actively discussed, as well as over 50 investment projects in the field of crop and livestock production, which will be implemented within the next three years.