Irkutsk
Ulan-Ude

Blagoveshchensk
Chita
Yakutsk

Birobidzhan
Vladivostok
Khabarovsk

Magadan
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

Anadyr
Petropavlovsk-
Kamchatsky
Moscow

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Reconfigure Transsib

Chapter "Samarga-holding" about the future of roads in the Far East

Samarga-holding general director Andrei Kryazhev, specifically for EastRussia, explains why the multibillion-dollar project of building Khabarovsk’s message with Samarga port (Primorye Territory) instead of Vladivostok port is a good future, and the introduction of a regular ferry service between all ports of the east is the only alternative to expensive car railways.

Reconfigure Transsib
Photo: "Samarga-holding"
Straightening moment

In 2016, 100 years have passed since the completion of the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. For a century in the region there have been radical changes. China, Korea and Japan have turned from backward countries to the world's leading economies. A large share of Russian exports to the markets of the Asia-Pacific region is made up of energy carriers whose production centers are several thousand kilometers away from the ports of the Far East. And it is obvious that the historically developed topology of Transsib is far from optimal.

If on the predominant part of the highway its main task is to ensure the transport accessibility of resources and industrial centers, then from Khabarovsk is the shortest access to the seaports. But when you need the shortest access to the coast - why go more than 500 km along this coast (for information, the average distance of rail transportation in Germany is about 300 km)? The expediency of changing the configuration of the Transsib transport corridor and creating an alternative to the 900-km route from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok and Nakhodka in the form of a smaller (about 400 km) access to the Pacific Ocean should be one of the priorities of the national transport policy.

It should be noted that one of the main documents of strategic planning for the development of the transport complex - the Strategy for the Development of Railway Transport to 2030, approved by the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation from 17 June 2008, provided for the construction of the Sukpai-Samarga railroad, To the Transsib of the Oborsk railway infrastructure, Kruglikovo-Sukpai, with an abutment to the Transsib in accordance with Art. Kruglikovo. However, in the actualized version of the Strategy from 2012, the branch of Sukpai-Samarga is already absent - in contrast, for example, from the questionable appointment of Selikhin-Sergeevka's backup.

The complex development of the transport and logistics infrastructure should include the Khabarovsk-Samarga railway, the universal sea port Samarga and the logistics center. It is of fundamental importance that in this case it is not a question of creating a new transport corridor or a branch of the Transsib. The project should be considered in the context of the urgent reconfiguration of the Trans-Siberian Railway - a change in the topology of the transport corridor from Khabarovsk to the Pacific coast, the reconstruction of one of the strategically important elements of the national transportation system, which will reduce the land transportation distance by about 560 km for shippers, which will reduce transport costs An average of 360 rubles per tonne. And to shorten the time of delivery of goods for 1,5 days.

In turn, the deviation of the Transsib cargo traffic and, accordingly, the unloading of the main run on the Khabarovsk — Ussuriysk – Vladivostok / Nakhodka section, as well as the capacity of the cargo sea area, makes it possible to realize the transit potential of the MTC Primorye - 1 with minimal costs, and also creates favorable conditions for the organization strategically important for the region high-speed passenger rail service on the route Vladivostok-Khabarovsk.

The Universal Sea Port (UMP) Samarga, in addition to the passenger, container and other cargo terminals, may include a ferry terminal. The economic logic of the railway-ferry technology is based on the fact that the cargo follows without terminal processing in the ports, which provides significant savings in time and financial costs. Calculations show the economic efficiency of rail-ferry technology when transporting goods over a distance of 1000 - 1200 km.

Ferry as Exit

Ferry technologies are not new to the region - for more than 40 for years, the Vanino-Kholmsk railway ferry has been operating, carrying no more than 3 thousand tons deadweight and up to 28 million tons of cargo per year (maximum 5,8 of the year). The ferry line from Samargi can serve the railway freight and passenger ferry with a capacity of 1988 cars, 112 auto trailers, around 120 cars and buses, to 100 passengers. Given the constraints of the conditions in existing seaports, the layout of the ferry should be adopted, in which only one deck is allocated for railway rolling stock. In this case, the minimum linear parameters of the terminal track development zone are ensured.



Specificity of the technological scheme of transportation on the route consists in the return loading of empty cars (after unloading coal, timber) of open wagons 40-, 45-foot containers and their transportation by route shipments to reloading terminals in the TLC of Krasnoyarsk, Kemerovo and other centers for extraction of energy resources. It is important to take into account that rail and ferry transportation, in addition to solving environmental problems associated with the reloading and storage of coal at port terminals, which is especially important for Nakhodka, Vanino, Posiet, also essentially extends the operational length of the railway tracks, and if the Russian fleet is implemented Factor of import substitution and development of export of transport services.

It should be recognized that in the medium term, the achievement of regulatory parameters of the state of the road network in the majority of the region’s territory, as well as the level of development of rail and air traffic required to ensure regular and inexpensive delivery of goods and passengers. But it seems expedient to organize in the waters of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and the Sea of ​​Japan regular passenger-and-freight ferry service, which, to a certain extent, will ensure the replenishment of the underdevelopment of the road network by maritime communications.

It is obvious that in the first time such transport activity without subsidizing will not be able to have a positive financial result, and in this regard the example of Norway is the most indicative, which has a long coastline with a large number of fjords, islands and straits and where the ferry service is implemented in similar geographical, climate and demographic conditions, plays an important economic and social role and is recognized as part of the national road network. The Ministry of Transport and Communications is responsible for compensating the ferry operators in Norway, and the respective municipalities in the districts. The amount of subsidies is set annually in the expenditure part of the national budget. The funds are then distributed as grants between municipalities for the procurement of ferry operator services.

The old will not pass

For Far Eastern conditions, taking into account the need to transport a significant number of passengers, it is necessary to create a new class of ships (conditionally - Con-Ro-Pax). The primary task is to determine the optimal deadweight, passenger capacity / gross and general cargo / container capacity, ice reinforcement class, the type of power plant (taking into account the possibility of using LNG as a motor fuel), etc. Construction of ships of this class is quite possible for domestic shipbuilding, and Operation - such companies as the FESCO transport group, Sakhalin Shipping Company (SASCO) and others.

It should be noted that the implementation of modern ferry technology can ensure the reliability and availability of transport links with. Sakhalin and through its territory from Fr. Hokkaido (Japan), while eliminating the need for gigantic budget expenditures on the construction of a bridge or tunnel (with approaches) through the Tatar Strait.

However, projects for the development of transport and logistics infrastructure of this level are characterized by a large investment capacity, complexity and complexity of the coordination and coordination processes, and the long payback period. At the same time, it is important that the initiator of the project is not the main beneficiary: in this case, the main beneficiaries are cargo owners who are able to reduce logistics costs and the state. Hence the principles of public-private partnership, where the obligations of the public partner consist in the timely allocation of the necessary land resources, the provision of "non-discriminatory" conditions for joining the engineering networks and the connection to the public transport infrastructure, the formation of the border, customs and social infrastructure, including regional and Municipal street-road network.