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The Far Eastern Hectare Saga - 2: a series of essays about people and free land - EastRussia |

Irkutsk
Ulan-Ude

Blagoveshchensk
Chita
Yakutsk

Birobidzhan
Vladivostok
Khabarovsk

Magadan
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

Anadyr
Petropavlovsk-
Kamchatsky
Moscow

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The saga of the Far Eastern hectare - 2

A series of essays on people and free land. The second essay: What the Far Easterners wanted and feared ...

How did the population of the region perceive the idea of ​​the "Far Eastern hectare"? Very different. A significant proportion were skeptics who initially decided that "nothing will come of them." And, it is worth saying that the skeptics had their reasons.

The saga of the Far Eastern hectare - 2

Leonid Blyakher

Professor, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Culturology of the Pacific State University, Doctor of Philosophy
More than once, even throughout the modern history of the country, the state threw people in the region at the most difficult time for them. Just a third of the country's territory fell out of the current information space, survived as it comes out. And the periods when the distant capital suddenly wanted to do much good for the Far East (Priamur, Primorye, Eastern Siberian), most often for them it went sideways. The construction of Transbaikal plants in the 18th century is undoubtedly an important stage in the development of the region. Only then did the Cossack freemen beyond Lake Baikal change to the ringing of the shackles, and the Cossacks themselves were reduced to the level of military settlers. Undoubtedly, the Great Kamchatka Expeditions are events not only of national, but of world history. Only here is about the number of lives that were paid for each verst of the tract to the ocean, every pud of grain or iron prepared for the expedition, every built wharf history is shyly silent about history. And not only in the distant past such examples can be found. For various reasons, which should be discussed separately, the region for the capital has always been "empty." Therefore, it did not occur to take into account the interests of "emptiness", to negotiate with "emptiness". So people were afraid that the “Far Eastern hectare” would either remain on paper or create not new opportunities, but new problems in their not so simple life. But there were other groups that were much more optimistic.

The idea of ​​the Far Eastern hectare Accidentally or intentionally overlapped two not so closely related sets of ideas, more or less widespread in the region. I'll start, perhaps, with less relevant and common. Among the more or less educated Far Eastern people, the talk about the Far Eastern "golden age" is sometimes louder and sometimes quieter, which, unlike the general human variant, was not located in prehistoric times, but occurred at the end of the XIX century (approximately until the beginning of the 20-ies of the XX century ). At this time, the state, frightened by the rapidly emptying region, suddenly ceased to develop it, imposing, however, huge benefits for immigrants and local residents. The symbol of these benefits were "one hundred and ten acres": the land allotment that was issued to the family. Of course, to these hundred tithes (slightly more than 100 hectares) was exempt from taxes and recruitment, the allocation of money for planting and seeds for sowing. And the people flowed into rich lands, foreigners began to move into Russian citizenship in order to join these blessings. Yes, a lot was given then. Rich peasants traded grain, timber, tar, cattle. They went out to merchants, industrialists. In a word, people lived. But it is "one hundred dessiatines" that are, in a sense, a brand of that time.

Accordingly, the “Far Eastern hectare” is perceived by many as some demo version of “one hundred tithes”. Conversations and conducted that it is a good thing. Only it hurts a little - 1 hectare. Even with tax breaks on 5 years. Now, if hectares of 8-10, then "yes." And so - nothing happens. But among them were more pragmatic or more resourceful characters. It is clear that the state cannot do anything particularly good. Not because it is evil, but because it does not know how, it is not for this imprisoned. But any resource can be used. What the state provides is also a resource. Including the "Far Eastern hectare." You can and should work with him. How? Simply. By the principle of already forgotten "vouchers", which became the symbol of the beginning of the 90-s. The family consists of 4-5 people. This is already 4-5 hectares. There are a lot of people who are not able to work on the ground or do not want to do it. But they can also be happy owners of the “Far Eastern hectare”. One way or another, you can collect quite a decent land fund, where you can set up your own business.



This group of "pragmatists" partially overlapped with those who at the end of the 90-ies and in the "zero years" have already been involved in agriculture, however, often informally. In the late Soviet years, huge pig farms, poultry farms and other institutions aimed at providing cities were built around large cities of the region. In the post-Soviet years, most of them disintegrated. Some were transformed into pieces into private enterprises. The products from New Zealand, Australia and China, the Rosrezerv reserves came to their aid. But capricious Far Eastern people wanted a fresh, not frozen product. As a result, small farms start to emerge (especially in small towns near to big towns), supplying meat and milk, vegetables and fruits, honey and wild plants to the market (more often - by "their own"). And if the production of vegetables turned out to be ethnically tied (Chinese greenhouses in the Khabarovsk Territory, the EAO and the Amur Region, Korean farms in Primorye, etc.), then the production of meat and dairy products, honey, etc. Became quite a profitable area for many and many residents of the southern part of the region. Numerous "kebabs", "pit-stops", etc. Preferred to buy products from these manufacturers. Yes, and residents of cities were not against pampering themselves with fresh, bought from "their" producer. Unfortunately, I do not know how these processes looked in the Amur Region and the EAO, traditionally focused on the production of grain and legumes, but I suppose that it is somehow similar.

I can not speak about the inhabitants of the distant "western" (European) regions of Russia. It seems from my "beautiful far", the idea of ​​"Far Eastern hectare" for them looks a bit strange. That is, it is quite possible to assume a group of downshifters who have decided to join the charms of pre-civilization life. But to imagine the mass campaign of the population of the Volga region or Kuban for the “Far Eastern hectare” of my imagination is not enough.

For the Far East, in any case, for their part, the meaning in the “hectare” was definitely. For all these people, designed, as farmers, tenants, owners of "personal plots" or not designed in any way, the "Far Eastern hectare" was a very practical thing. They were more frightened by the uncertainty in the law, which allowed the possibility of arbitrariness on the part of a particular official, the red tape, which they had already encountered before when registering land plots, etc. And, as it turned out, the scare was not in vain. We will talk about what the authorities, those wishing to become owners of the “Far Eastern hectare”, and those who, it would seem, have nothing to do with all of this, have a look at the following essay.