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Aspiration far beyond 100
Aircraft manufacturers of Khabarovsk Krai have much to expand production volumes
The Khabarovsk krai aviation industry, which generates the most high-tech part of the gross regional product, including the Sukhoi Superjet 100 liner, is at the point of choice. On the verge of changing technological structures, the country's leadership made a strategic decision to support the development of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the engineering capital of the Far East. How effectively it will be possible to apply new tools to the aircraft industry, such as the preferential treatment of advanced development territories and the cluster approach, will be shown in the coming years.
In 2015, in the Khabarovsk Territory, the 100 series serial of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 regional airliner was assembled - the first civil aircraft designed in modern Russia. The assembly of the most high-tech product of the Russian aircraft, created in the framework of broad international cooperation, is carried out in the workshops of the branch of Sukhoi Civil Aircraft PJSC. Now the plant is able to provide production of up to three cars per month. SSJ-100 flies in dozens of countries, constantly expanding the geography of its presence, which aircraft manufacturers of Komsomolsk-on-Amur are justly proud of. However, this is not all that the engineering complex of the Khabarovsk Territory can offer to the world market.
Thanks to concentration in the region of enterprises of the defense industrial complex, Khabarovsk Krai has historically been the leader in the level of engineering development among the subjects of the Russian Federation that are part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The province provides up to 80% of engineering products in the Far East, 35% of the manufacturing industry of the Khabarovsk Territory is aircraft and shipbuilding. Aircraft construction is part of a huge, decades-old industrial complex. Along with the growth of the state defense order (only for 2011-2014 years it almost doubled - in 2,23 times in aircraft construction and 1,53 times in shipbuilding), the enterprises of the Khabarovsk Territory constantly increase investments in technology and production.
The technical development of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur aircraft plant (KnAAZ), part of the holding Sukhoi, in 2007-2020 will be sent 27,8 billion rubles, including 18,64 billion rubles - in 2017-2020. The enterprise is one of the key manufacturers of equipment for the Russian Defense Ministry, the place where the fifth-generation T-50 fighter took off for the first time. In comparison with the fighters of previous generations, T-50 has a number of unique features, combining the functions of a strike aircraft and a fighter. These aircraft, along with modernized aircraft systems of the fourth generation will determine the potential of the Russian Air Force in the coming decades. Technical re-equipment and introduction of modern methods of production organization have already made it possible to reduce the labor intensity of aircraft production at KnAAZ in 2,5-3 times, increasing labor productivity by at least twofold.
The branch of Sukhoi Civil Aircraft (Sukhoi Civil Aircraft) also conducted a large-scale development of the production base, investments in fixed assets amount to billions of rubles. SSJ-100 has assembled, assembled and commissioned the equipment of the world's leading manufacturers in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The strategic partner of the project is the Italian Alenia Aeronautica, the risk-sharing partner is the French Snecma, the consultant is Boeing.
Aircraft enterprises account for up to 90% of investments in the engineering industry of the Khabarovsk Territory. Aircraft and shipbuilding organizations have the highest innovation activity among other branches of the industrial complex of the region - about 62%. The main industrial potential of Komsomolsk-on-Amur is formed by KnAAZ, a branch of the GSS and Amur Shipbuilding Plant (AES). The state defense order for them on the basis of 2015 of the year amounted to 33 billion rubles, the entire budget of Komsomolsk-on-Amur is about 6 billion rubles. Having such a powerful financial support, the aircraft industry is a potential driver of the innovation economy, which creates prerequisites for the development of the fifth and sixth technological structures in the Khabarovsk Territory, characterized by high added value of industrial production.
Mechanical engineering in Russia as a whole is going through difficult times. The industry collapsed during financial and economic crises, almost all large machine-building enterprises came under state control and are being modernized mainly due to direct subsidies from the federal budget. There are practically no new successful private engineering projects in Russia. Technologically stronger neighbors from the Asia-Pacific region, Japan and South Korea, put strong pressure on the industry.
At the same time, the world markets of shipbuilding and aircraft construction are gradually moving to a new technological structure, the shares of leading manufacturing companies are being redistributed. In the long term, the shipbuilding market will grow despite periodic recessions due to cyclicality. The development of offshore oil and gas production, the establishment of a global natural gas transportation system is seen by experts as the main driver of the growth of the large and medium-tonnage shipbuilding market in the following 10-15 years. The world market of aircraft and components for the last decades also does not experience a drop in demand - the main driving force behind its development remains the growth of passenger and freight traffic, which, according to forecasts, will grow to 2025 year respectively in 2 and 2,3 times. The average annual growth rate of passenger air transportation in Russia and the CIS in the next 20 years, is believed in the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC), expected at 7%, the demand for new passenger aircraft from Russian airlines in the period up to 2032 will be 1,9-2 thousand aircraft Different passenger capacity.
The main investment tasks for the development of machine building in the Khabarovsk Territory are the strengthening of the cluster approach to the development of the industry and the shift in focus to the launch of new specialized companies and small innovative projects. The presence of a defense order for a long-term perspective contributes to the development of modern technologies and shapes the demand for innovation. But the build-up of the competitive advantages of Khabarovsk machine building is impossible without the strengthening of the "technological core", in which the full cycle of technology maintenance and the implementation of experimental developments should be concentrated. The form of development of aircraft building and shipbuilding in the region must inevitably be the integration and technological cooperation of all enterprises.
KnAAZ is an enterprise of a complete production cycle, from casting and stamping to final assembly and flight tests with the possibility of after-sales service of machinery. The GSS branch in Komsomolsk-on-Amur only assembles SSJ-100, therefore it is highly dependent on the supply of components and the activities of other enterprises of the production-sales chain. In 2015, for example, in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, it was planned to produce 50 liners SSJ-100, but the real output was only 17 machines. The company in Komsomolsk-on-Amur was ready to fulfill its plans, but failed to translate them. KnAAZ has no such problems. And in November, the 2015 of the year, the holding “Sukhoi” signed an unprecedented contract with China for the export of Su-24 fighter jets. Only this will load KnAAZ for a dozen years ahead.
SWOT analysis of the factors of the development of machine building in the Khabarovsk Territory shows that the strengths of the industry in the region are active participation in state programs (hence the constant funding through state corporations - USC and UAC), developed production capacity and extensive experience in solving complex problems, the availability of promising developments for civil sector and experience in the implementation of design work, the proximity of potential markets for consumption of products - the countries of Asia. Important is also the presence of specialized universities and research institutes, repair enterprises and competences for entering the markets of service services, possession of competencies potentially convertible in the technology of other industries.
The weaknesses of engineering are also obvious: high dependence on government order, narrow processing specialization of basic production, logistic and transportation difficulties in the supply of components, low level of cooperation between universities, research institutes and enterprises, and involvement in international networks of component suppliers and researchers. The excess of transport and energy tariffs in the Far East of the average Russian level also does not add to the competitiveness of local enterprises in the domestic market.
The Khabarovsk Krai Government is confident that only a cluster approach can solve the problems of the development of high-tech engineering. In 2015, regional authorities adopted a program to create a cluster of aircraft and shipbuilding around the leading factories of the industry: the KnAAZ, the Amur and Khabarovsk shipyards, and the Dalenergomash group of companies. An important component of the cluster should be the Pacific State University, the Far Eastern State Transport University and the Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University, several research institutes and the autonomous non-profit organization "Far Eastern Innovation Promotion Agency" (DASI), a government-controlled structure capable of speaking operator-coordinator of the project.
Most of the potential cluster members are concentrated in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, where, recently, there is a unique opportunity to apply the existing potential of Khabarovsk engineering to the rapidly developing Asian markets. Komsomolskaya agglomeration is the key center of the machine-building complex of the Khabarovsk Territory, the total output in this sector, according to DASI, is about 33 billion rubles (more than 7% of the region's GRP), of which 25 billion rubles falls to the Sukhoi group of companies, 5 billion rubles - for the region's shipbuilding companies and about 3 billion rubles - for other machine-building enterprises.
In 2015 – 2016, Komsomolsk-on-Amur received two powerful tools at once. Last year, the Komsomolsk territory of advanced social and economic development was created, providing preferential conditions for the implementation of private business projects. And in the spring of this year, the Russian government adopted a comprehensive plan for the long-term development of the city worth more than 60 billion rubles. These funds are ready to spend federal and regional budgets for the infrastructure of the industrial center of the Far East in the period up to 2025.
The peculiarity of TOSED Komsomolsk is the reliance on inter-production cooperation, which lies in the concept of creating a cluster of aircraft and shipbuilding. The group of companies "Energy" has already become the base resident of TOSED with a plant project for high-precision machining of parts for the needs of UAC enterprises for 1,7 million machine hours per year. The production cost of 7,7 billion rubles is intended to serve the needs of not only aircraft factories of Komsomolsk-on-Amur (about 1 million machine-hours), but also other enterprises of the KLA. Especially for this, the regulations on the procurement activities of UAC, GSS and the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) should include the rules on the procurement of products from residents of the Komsomolsk TOSED. The further search for basic residents of TOSED is aimed at providing opportunities for cooperation with other leading enterprises of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Among them may be the production of airborne equipment and electronic components, hydraulic systems and interiors.