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Technologies and investments for the benefit of the quality of life of the population
Yakutia developed an ambitious project of the Development Strategy until 2030 with a target vision up to 2050 year
The large-scale project of the Development Strategy of Yakutia up to 2030 of the year with a targeted vision up to 2050 of the year, adopted at the end of last year by the Government of the Republic, was highly appreciated by federal experts. The main economic aspects of the document, which combined more than 400 projects with a total investment in fixed assets of more than 6 trillion rubles and put the growth of the quality of life of the local population at the center, in an interview with EastRussia told First Deputy Prime Minister - Minister of Economy of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) Alexey Struchkov .
- Defining the main ultimate goal of our strategy as improving the quality of life, we lay down norms and measures related to both raising per capita incomes of the population and increasing average monthly wages. This is due to the implementation of new projects, with the emergence of new branches of the economy in the country, in which people will receive stable and high prosperity. We also lay the annual growth rates of the gross regional product from 2% to 5,5%, which will increase the budget revenue base. Hence - the expansion of opportunities for the state, including for increasing the wage bill for workers in the budgetary sector of the economy.
Our goal is to increase almost 3 times in comparable prices per capita income of the population, reduce unemployment and share of the poor. This is a red thread through all the main priorities and directions of our strategy, and this for us is the main, ultimate goal of implementing socio-economic development measures.
By 2030, we predict a significant reduction in the proportion of the population with incomes below the subsistence minimum two times. If according to current estimates this category in the republic is 18,5%, then by the year 2030 we set ourselves a reference point to reduce this figure to less than 8%.
- How have yakutyan incomes changed lately?
- According to available data, average per capita incomes of the population in the nominal terms increased by 2016% in 4,3% in comparison with 2015 year, which exceeds the growth rate of the indicator for the whole of the Russian Federation (0,1%) and the Far Eastern Federal District (8,6%). Among the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District in terms of average per capita monetary incomes, the republic was on the fifth place.
The average monthly accrued wages of employees of organizations increased by 2016% in comparison with the indicator of 7,1 year by the results of 2015 year. In general, the Russian Federation in this period, the growth rate of wages was 7,9%. The growth of the consumer price index outpaced the growth rates of average per capita monetary incomes and the average monthly accrued wages.
- In the near future, what will happen to the income of the population?
- In accordance with the forecast of social and economic development of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) by 2019, we expect an increase in per capita nominal money incomes by 19,2% to the level of 2016, and the average monthly accrued wages in nominal terms will increase by 23,1%.
- The strategy contains a general parameter: an increase in labor productivity by one and a half times. What is the basis of this figure? How are you going to achieve? By introducing new technologies?
- Labor productivity is an indicator that has not only economic, but social significance at the macro level. Increase in labor productivity means an increase in the well-being of the population and the standard of living in general. That is why the increase in labor productivity in the economy is stipulated by the Decrees of the President of Russia, dated 7 May 2012 [one of the so-called "May" decrees - approx. EastRussia].
According to our calculations, when implementing investment projects of the Strategy, launching new processing industries, universal introduction of efficient and energy-saving technologies, reducing the share of manual labor, labor productivity by 2030 will be increased 1,5 times compared to 2015.
- The regional development strategy provides for a change in the structure of the economy of Yakutia by 2030. Very interesting forecasts are the reduction in the share of mineral extraction by almost 2 times against the background of the growth of manufacturing industries by more than 4 times.
- Absolutely. Today, mining is 44% of the GRP of Yakutia. By the 2030 year, we aim to increase the physical volume of GRP by 81% compared to the 2016 year, while the share of mineral production is predicted to be at the level of 26,3%. That is, we aim to ensure the main growth at the expense of manufacturing industries (the increase in the share from 1,3% to 8% - that is, 6 times); transport (increase in the share from 10,1% to 15%), construction (increase in the share from 7,6% to 15%), agriculture (increase in the share from 2,1 to 4%). It is these industries that will develop at a faster pace.
The strategy also defines the goal of doubling industrial production in Yakutia by 2030. The target index of industrial production in 2030 year is 210,8% (relative to 2016 year). We expect that the most dynamic development, again, will show the manufacturing industry.
"The main growth will come from oil, gas and coal and projects for their processing, right?
- And also gold. Taking into account the ongoing projects, the forecast for growth in oil production is from 9,7 million tons to 16,1 million tons. The growth is related to the development of the Talakan-Peleduiskoye group of fields (up to 9 million tons of oil), the Srednebotuobin deposit (up to 5 million tons to 2021 year), the development of the oil margin of the Chayandinskoye field (up to 2 million tons to 2019). Along with this, during this period will be involved in the development of a number of fields in the ESPO zone. It is planned to create and develop a refining center in the Aldan District.
The forecast for gas production growth over 2030 is from 1,9 billion cubic meters to 30,9 billion cubic meters. The effect will be ensured by the commissioning of the Chayandinsky (capacity up to 25 billion cubic meters by the 2024 year), the Taas-Yuryakhskoye and Srednebotobinskoye fields, as well as an increase in production at the Otradninskoe field.
Coal in the republic today is extracted about 16,4 million tons, the target level for 2030 is 70,7 million tons. Of course, the bulk of the increase is expected with the development of the largest Elginsky coal complex.
Finally, gold is planned to increase production from the current 23,5 tons to 38 tons to 2030 year. The main investment projects are the development of the Nezhdaninskoye gold ore deposit with the capacity up to 10 t gold to 2022, the development of the Kyuchus gold ore deposit with the capacity of 4,5 tons of gold to 2030, the increase in the capacities at the Kuranakh ore field to 6 tons to 2019.
- And the production of diamonds?
- It is assumed that the production of diamonds will give a slight increase to the level of 2016 year - from 34,9 million carat to 36,1 million carats. The strategy allows preserving the world leadership of Yakutia in diamond mining.
- What new sectors of the economy are planned to be developed in the Strategy?
- We are planning to create a large tin production center in the Ust-Yansky district of the republic. There are two deposits located here; in total, by the 2030 year they can produce up to 5,5 thousand tons of tin. In addition, it is planned to create production of lead and zinc in concentrate (30,9 thousand tons and 28,7 thousand tons, respectively). The main projects are the development of the Verkhne Menkeche deposit in the territory of the Tompon district with the output to the design capacity of production of lead and zinc to 8 thousand tons by the year 2022; development of the Sardana deposit in the Ust-Maysky ulus with a capacity of 10 thousand tons of zinc and 12 thousand tons of lead from 2023 of the year; the development of the Vertical Mangazeya ore field deposits in the territory of the Kobyaysky district from 2019 and the Forecast in the territory of the Verkhoyansk district from 2022-2026's.
Finally, in South Yakutia, it is planned to create a large industrial cluster of ferrous metallurgy. The target indicator is production of up to 19,2 million tons of iron ore, it will be produced by two deposits - Taiga and Tarynnakh. The development of the cluster involves the construction in 2028-2032 of a metallurgical plant with an annual capacity of 6 million tons of rolled and sliced.
- The strategic goal of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) states such an interesting category as a "magnet of technologies" for living in low temperatures and vast territories. What is behind this bright formula?
- We have a scientific system of institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, North-Eastern Federal University. M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk State Agricultural Institute, Yakutsk Research Institute of Agriculture, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, ensuring competitiveness in the application of the results of research and experimental design work (R & D). Innovative infrastructure facilities are being developed, such as the State Technopark Yakutia State Joint-Stock Company, the Yakutia Venture Company JSC, the Arctic Innovation Center at NEFU, which are a key element in the commercialization of R & D and other developments, putting the best ideas into practice. The state provides support for any undertakings, such as those who can make life directly in Yakutia better, as well as those that can develop on the national and global market and, as a result, attract investment to the Republic.
In the next couple of years, it is planned to start the first stage of the IT-Park construction project, which will allow the innovative sector of the republic's economy to develop. The second stage in the implementation of the High Technologies Park is the Biotechnology Park, covering a number of industries (agrifood sector, forest sector, a number of sub-sectors of the chemical and petrochemical industry, the pharmaceutical industry and the biomedical health sector).
In general, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) has a high potential for the development of creative industries. The population of the republic is characterized by a high concentration of talents, the people's desire for creativity and self-expression. This is an inexhaustible resource for the development of the postindustrial economy. We assume an integrated approach, which includes the support of talents, the creation of the necessary infrastructure for the development of creativity, including creative clusters, IT parks and the formation of other measures of state support.
The development of a creative economy in the country can make a tangible contribution to expanding the employment market, realizing creative potential, promote the growth of export earnings, open the way to inclusive and sustainable economic growth, perform an important function in improving the welfare of society, and contribute to improving the quality of life in general.
- Another question about the quality of life. One of the goals set in the Strategy is to reduce the proportion of dilapidated emergency housing to 5,5% to 2035. Why can not it be eradicated until 2035?
- The volume of only dilapidated housing officially registered in the Republic of Sakha Yakutia is slightly more than 3 million square meters. This is a huge number. If you multiply by the average cost 60 thousand rubles. per square meter, we get under 200 billion rubles of the required investment. But this is not all - the aging of the housing stock continues, especially in the northern areas. In this regard, to solve the problem of reducing to 5% by 2030 g. - this is an extremely complex and crucial task. Of course, we will strive for zero, but, nevertheless, our strategy in the base case is 5,5%.
- Now construction is in progress?
- Of course. By 1 September 2017, we are completing the first stage, only 2012 thousand square meters will be resettled from 491 year. This was sent to more than 30 billion rubles.
- What is the ratio of federal and regional funds?
- The ratio of the order of 70% is given by the regional and local budgets, and 30% is provided by the Fund for Assistance to the Housing and Communal Services Reform.
- Not even in half?
- Yes. Funds are allocated from the calculation for 1 sq.m. Emergency housing - 39,4 thousand rubles. However, we actually settle into a large area, it is about 600 thousand square meters with a cost of about 60 thousand rubles per square meter. All this difference falls on us.
- And where does the additional area come from?
- At us emergency habitation is often barracks which have been constructed in 70 or even the end of 60-ies. So imagine, the family of 5 people lives on 18 square meters. On formal grounds, we must either move them to the same 18 sq. M., While in this area we provide them with amenities - bathroom, toilet, bedroom. Either give a person a subsidy at the market value of his housing, so that he gets himself a new one on the market. In our conditions, neither that nor the other is not possible - that's why we naturally move from 18 square meters to large premises. Plus the price is different. This is the difference, which lies on the regional, on the local budgets. The same situation in all other subjects of the Russian Federation, except for large cities. For example, in Moscow 1 square meter costs more than 70 thousand, and a person is simply given a subsidy.
- A similar question on the improvement in the countryside. Targets - 70,7% to 2035 g. Why exactly such an indicator?
- In Yakutia, in our vast territory, today there are more than 600 settlements, of which a little more than 10 cities, 2 city districts and 24 district centers. Add another order of 20 urban-type settlements. The rest of the mass, more than 500 settlements, is a village that has never been landscaped. According to available data in 2015, only 44% of the total housing area is equipped with all types of amenities, and in the village this indicator is only 2,9%, in some municipalities there is no complete sewerage and water supply. The task of equipping 70% is very ambitious and complicated. We are engaged in this work for several years, we are taking measures to improve private houses, we help, our bank gives preferential loans for purchasing the necessary equipment.
So, in addition to the active implementation of the program for connecting private houses to centralized heating from 2011 year, from 2016 the implementation of the project for the improvement of apartment houses was started by issuing loans to the Almazergienbank JSC with a low interest rate to the population living in rural settlements.
Additionally, in 2017, the Government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) will implement measures to provide cash loans to individuals for the implementation of comprehensive landscaping of the existing individual housing stock, as well as covering transportation costs for the delivery of materials and equipment to the arctic and northern ulus and hard-to-reach settlements Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
The life of our village is a matter of spatial development, for Yakutia - a very sensitive and important topic. About 35% of the population of the RS (Y) live in rural areas. There is a traditional way of life of the indigenous population of Yakutia, there is a specificity associated with traditional types of nature use, there are representatives of indigenous small peoples of the North - all this must be taken into account.
- Tell me, please, and what are the targeted measures for the development of the quality of life of the small indigenous peoples of the North? Is there a specificity?
- We must proceed from the fact that the indigenous small peoples total slightly more than 30 thousand in our country, with the population of the republic 960 thousand people. These peoples lead a traditional way of life, are engaged in reindeer herding, they are roaming, they have no concept of settledness. During the Soviet period, special state farms were made for them, the children studied in boarding schools. For the parents were built houses, but they still wandered, never this topic was not perceived. They have in their hearts a tundra, a forest, a taiga and they go away anyway.
This does not mean that we strive to preserve their way of life in the form in which it exists. We are trying to involve them in the active life of society, taking into account the requirements of the XXI century. There are children of the indigenous peoples of the North who are currently studying at leading universities of the Russian Federation and even outside our country.
Today we are creating certain conditions for representatives of the Indigenous Minorities so that they do not abandon the traditional forms of management. For example, we subsidize reindeer brigades and issue subsidies that replace them with either social benefits or wages. In 2015, we have brought this amount to 20 thousand rubles per reindeer herder, and as far as possible our budget will take measures to increase this amount. We also support different types of farms, above all, reindeer husbandry, and allocate subsidies for reindeer husbandry. In total, budget expenditures amount to slightly more than 400 million rubles per year. We support fishing - in the amount of about 125 million rubles per year. There are other areas - grant support, preservation of languages and national culture, educational programs for nomadic schools. All this is only a small fraction of what could be done.
First of all, we are striving to ensure that the ethnos, language and culture are preserved. For us it is very important, it is important that they are preserved as ethnoses, as separate nationalities. As far as possible, we are providing them with social support measures and will continue to provide them. For example, we have such a project - a nomadic school, so that children who study in primary schools can roam with their parents. Teachers travel behind this herd and teach children on the ground.
At the moment the draft of the Strategy of socio-economic development of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) until 2030 with the definition of the target vision up to 2050 is on the coordination in federal authorities. By the end of May, the five-month period for reviewing the project expires, following which we will be finalizing the final version of the Strategy.