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Vladimir Ilyukhin: "A sense of stability appeared on Kamchatka"
Governor of the Kamchatka Krai on the specifics of economic development and infrastructure construction
Photo: Press Service of the Government of the Kamchatka Territory
- Vladimir Ivanovich, September for Far Eastern subjects is traditionally the date of summing up the interim results at the next Eastern Economic Forum. Can you give some assessment of the state of affairs in numbers?
- If we start with figures, then in the Kamchatka Krai are now at the stage of implementation or preparation for implementation - more than 315 investment projects amounting to 550 billion rubles. All of them together will allow to achieve a qualitatively new level of development in several key sectors of the economy - logistics, fishing and agrocomplexes, subsoil development, tourism. And we need to understand that these funds, which in the coming years will receive the economy of the Kamchatka Territory, are taken not out of nowhere - this is the result of a daily targeted work to attract investors and improve the investment climate. At the fourth Eastern Economic Forum, it is planned to sign 13 agreements. Six of them - with investors: on the construction of a terminal for transshipment of liquefied natural gas from PJSC NOVATEK and a complex for growing vegetables in a closed ground with OOO Kamchatsky, about the development of a tourist and entertainment complex with the Blue Lagoon LLC and the construction of a business center of OOO TSTDOM. Two more projects - with the group "Gold of Kamchatka": on the construction of GOK at Baranievskoye field and modernization of GOK on Ametistovoye.
- Do you have a feeling that the situation as a whole in Kamchatka is changing for the better?
- I will say so. In Kamchatka, there was not much that began to appear in recent years. Why have people left the North for the last several decades? In search of a better life. The authorities have always done something to change the situation for the better. Now, maybe, it's become a little more. We built priorities several years ago: children, houses, roads. And it works. More than 300 kilometers of roads in asphalt over the years are laid out wherever there has never been a road, the district centers are being improved. Housing is being built. We solved the problem with places in kindergartens - one of the first in Russia, to 1 September this year, handed over another new garden at 260 places in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Last year they built and handed over a children's library. There has never been a registry office in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, there were accommodations - and now there is a wonderful registry office, around which newlyweds can plant a whole park of trees.
- Does it somehow affect the demographic indicators?
- With demography is not easy: in 1986, the average age of the population of Kamchatka was, I recall, 29,5 years, and today - far beyond 40. I remember, in 2013 year I met with our graduates-medalists, there were 14 people. And 11 of them then said that after the release they would go looking for a better life on the "mainland", because here "everything is gray and the Internet is gone." And here in 2017 year we for the first time for 17 years began to grow up on a demography. Let and not little, plus 543 rights, grew by migration - the last three years the outflow decreased, but it was outflow, but now the balance has become positive. This is a very important psychological milestone for us. In 2015, we overcame another milestone: the birth rate began to exceed mortality. I think that the set of measures that we are putting into practice has played a role. It is still difficult to talk about sufficient comfort of life in Kamchatka, but the quality of life is gradually improving. Of course, there are many skeptics. But I often travel a lot around the region, and it is clear that stability comes, people realize that they are not abandoned. Someone can stall this stagnation. In my understanding, stability is when a person can be calm for his tomorrow. Most of the people who live in Kamchatka have such stability. And in my understanding this is the main result of the work for the past period.
- But you do not think that all social problems are solved on Kamchatka?
- "The failures" of Soviet times, we are trying to pull. It is clear that the infrastructure is not enough: in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, for example, 200 thousand people had one swimming pool. In 2011 year, taking office, I promised that our work will be socially oriented. And I keep my word. As soon as the funds are released, we are sure to send a part to the "social network", to the infrastructure. For four years they sought to allocate funds from the federal budget for the construction of a regional hospital. There were two instructions from the president, the instructions of the prime minister on this matter. As a result, we get 4,2 billion rubles in the first place. Financing foreseen for this year has already been received, and we will perform even more work than planned. Last year, a polyclinic was built with a department for the rehabilitation of disabled people - there is nowhere in the Far East. The large-scale reconstruction of the Spartak stadium, the construction of the Puppet Theater - these things have always been our priorities.
However, it is difficult to build, and not the last problem is that state contracts for the construction of social objects of the company benefit by severely reducing prices. And when they start working, they understand that we have special requirements for seismic, and the "northern surcharges" need workers to pay, do not execute contracts, and we have to start all over again.
Our Far Eastern companies tend to be reluctant to such competitions: they understand that they are expensive, far away, and they have high requirements for seismic resistance. But there are solutions.
- And what about the Internet, about which young people told you that it "does not"?
- For today Kamchatka is provided with the Internet for 98%. Here came the fiber optic cable of Rostelecom, made wiring throughout the south and center - from Bolsheretska to Milkovo, in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, to the nearest villages. But we have 30 settlements in the north, 300 thousand square kilometers, 20 thousand inhabitants - the former Koryak autonomous region - were left without fiber. And these people do not want to leave there, from their small towns, even if there is an 50 person living there, although we offer them such options. No, they say, we will not move, you just send us the transport, so that the children can go back to school and back, and sometimes even see doctors. I went out with a proposal to pull the cable to Chukotka through the northern regions of Kamchatka. We are still told that it is cheaper to go by sea. And for Kamchatka they promised to strengthen the constellation of satellites. I hope that next year some solution will appear.
- Any effect of the fact that the Far East was declared "a priority for the 21-th century" and there are preferences for investors, for the economy is already visible?
- The advantages of the TOR and free port of Vladivostok are obvious. Now Kamchatka is the leader in terms of the number of residents of the TOP and second in this indicator in the SPV in the Far East. Yes, tax incentives assume that budgets will lose something in the first years, but we do not count on the immediate result. Taxes, new jobs - it will all be, just not right away. But in other areas, the results are already visible. Over the past few years, we have actually doubled the revenue side of the budget: from 10 billion to 22 billion rubles. Last year, the budget of Kamchatka was 75 billion rubles, and we started with 20-30 billion rubles. Over the years, the fishery complex has earned its full meaning. We managed to reorient the flow of products - before three quarters of supplies went abroad, now - 70-75% goes to the Russian market. Earlier the companies worked on catch and export, now - more than 20 billion rubles of investments in the "shore", in processing. All large fish producers try to work transparently, since this is a condition for obtaining preferences, and the tax return from the industry has grown to 6,5 billion rubles. In 2017 year on Kamchatka more than 1,2 million tons of bioresources were caught - this is a record. The final figures for this year we can bring a little later, but this year will surely beat the records of the past.
- Do other branches manage to achieve at least comparable growth?
- Mining sector used to give a few percent of GRP. Today gives 15-16% in total. I believe that in Kamchatka it is possible and necessary to extract. Three of the largest modern ore mining and processing plants have been built in recent years, this year another Ozernovsky mine was launched, and I hope that by 2022 we will reach the volumes of 10-18 tons of gold per year, although now we are giving 6,5 tons. Forecast reserves - about 1 thousand tons of ore gold. Here, I believe, we manage to maintain the most important balance - and unique Kamchatka nature not to harm, and to introduce into circulation new large deposits, and not only gold ones. Among the latter, as you know, is the Krutogorovskoye coal field, where the Indian company TATA Power enters.
- When will the real movement for this project begin?
- Why the facility has not been developed for many years is a difficult field from the point of view of logistics. The road through Shanuch almost to the field is. But with the sea, to which about 80 km, there are problems. We do not have a single berthing facility on the west coast of Kamchatka, which leads to the Sea of Okhotsk, since there are very strong ebb-tides - up to half a kilometer. Today this is the main question - how to transport the extracted coal. As an investor decides it - will build a highway or a railway, take it to the water depth to the required depth - it's up to him to decide. Coal is absolutely necessary for heating central Kamchatka.
- Historically, it is necessary to carry not only fuel, but also food. With this, how does the situation change?
- Firstly, we bought back the feed mill from the regional property, and now it works remarkably, producing forages for laying hens and pigs. The enterprise closes the needs of the market, moreover, we expect to start making our flour on imported grain. Unfortunately, you will not grow your grain in Kamchatka on an industrial scale, although now farmers are trying to do it. Secondly, the milk industry managed to open several large production points - thanks to the fact that they built large dairy complexes. The share of dried milk is decreasing. Thirdly, we have completely provided ourselves with chilled pork, and we need to achieve the same results with beef. For the time being, only the north of the peninsula suffers, where it is economically unprofitable to open similar production. Our task is to organize in the necessary quantity the operational delivery. For this purpose, the avtozimnik will operate in Palana, which we are building, aviation and sea transport.
- Not so long ago, the investor came to the project for the modernization of the airport in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the rules for issuing "electronic visas" to the Far East have been extended to the air harbor. In your opinion, will this affect the tourist flow?
- There are decades of foreign tourists in Kamchatka, mainly those who go for trophies: hunters, fishermen. They probably do not need an "electronic visa". But for our main Asian partners this, of course, is important. I have long been a business connected with tourism, I am targeting the creation of conditions for citizens of the Asia-Pacific region: there, after all, their special features on nutrition, living, languages. As soon as the mass flow, there will be positive changes. We advocate that there are direct charters from Korea, from China, from Japan, so that there are regular flights. Foreign companies are ready to start working, but only with very serious volumes. And there is nowhere to place them on Kamchatka.
- New hotels will appear?
- Two large new hotels are being built in the center of the city. But they are not for the mass tourist, of course. We have only 4,5 thousand places to accommodate - this is very small. We need at least 10 thousand places. Previously, the seasonal factor was great, everything ended in September, hotels worked four months a year. Therefore, the hotel infrastructure did not develop - it was unprofitable to invest in it. Now everything is changing. The last two years began to return the flow of tourists to the city itself. Even in winter, and even more so since April, which used to be a "dead" month for tourists, everything has already been redeemed. We need to tighten the infrastructure. Returning to the question about the airport, the company "Airports of the Regions" was included in the number of residents of the "Kamchatka" TOR, in July we gave an official start, laying the stone, now the work is already in the active stage.
- In the National Ranking of the state of the investment climate in the regionsKamchatka took 32 place with growth at 36 positions. Now you have set the task to take the 25 line. How do you assess the mood of the business community?
- It was never easy to do business in the Far East, and even more so in Kamchatka. We understand what business is and how it is affected. This is a common problem - the business says that it is being harassed, and the authorities - that it does not have enough control over the business. So the problem is precisely to find this "golden mean". Of course, the more freedom - the easier business, but after all, the responsibility of business should be: before society, in front of people. In recent years, we have done a lot here - in terms of supporting small and medium-sized businesses, there are now 19 thousands of SMEs in Kamchatka. And it is important that all entrepreneurs love Kamchatka, respect it, and do a lot here. And the problems are treated with understanding, helping us solve them.