Irkutsk
Ulan-Ude

Blagoveshchensk
Chita
Yakutsk

Birobidzhan
Vladivostok
Khabarovsk

Magadan
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

Anadyr
Petropavlovsk-
Kamchatsky
Moscow

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Import hands

Why Far Eastern businesses need migrant workers instead of Russians in 2019

At the beginning of 2019, the Ministry of Labor issued an order approving quotas for attracting foreign labor to Russia. The subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District inherited from 16 official quotas for migrant workers for Kamchatka to 28,7 thousand approved applications for workers from abroad for the Amur Region. EastRussia carefully analyzed hundreds of pages of annexes to the order, finding some interesting facts.

Import hands
Photo: Construction of the Amur GPP. Photo: press service of JSC "Gazprom"

FACT FIRST: FOREIGNERS - ESSENTIAL PART OF THE WORKING LANDSCAPE

74 subjects of the Russian Federation are listed in the annexes to the order of the Ministry of Labor, setting quotas for workers from abroad. Of these, 11 is the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District in its new borders, with Buryatia and Trans-Baikal Territory. Thus, in none of the Far Eastern regions did business abandon the use of legal foreign labor.

Another thing is that the scale of the participation of regions in the FEFD in the global division of labor is surprisingly different. Where, tell me, on this scale of labor mobility is the Kamchatka Territory, whose enterprises for 2019 have formalized official applications for only 16 foreigners, and where is the Amur region with its 28,7 thousand people?

Do migrant workers attracted by quotas affect the overall labor landscape of the Far Eastern regions? It is impossible to answer this question unequivocally - the picture is too different everywhere.

But in at least two regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, the Amur Region and the Khabarovsk Territory, foreign workers must take more jobs by quotas than official unemployed people in the region. It turns out that, at least here, the attraction of workers from abroad is justified by the lack of domestic labor in such quantities that are required by employers (for quality, a special conversation).

In the Amur region, for example, according to Rosstat, there are only 10,1 thousand unemployed, and foreign workers on quotas, we recruit 28,7 thousand. In the Khabarovsk Territory, which requires 8,3 thousand foreign workers on quotas, 6,9 thousand unemployed. In Primorye, where in September 2018 was 10,5 thousand unemployed, employers plan to take over 2019 thousand jobs in foreigners in 7,8 year.

At the same time, the needs of employers for employees, about whom they report to Rostrud, are much higher everywhere - both the number of unemployed and the number of foreigners involved. However, in the case of the Amur Region, they are comparable: not only does the region attract more foreign workers than there are unemployed, but at the expense of the workforce attracted from abroad, employers' staffing requirement (65,9 thousand) is almost half closed. The ratios of all three indicators for the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District are shown in the graph below.

How many foreign quota workers will attract DFO subjects in 2019

Subject DFO

Applications, pieces

Declared jobs for foreigners in 2019 g., Pers.

Unemployed Russians, pers. (Rosstat, September 2018)

Employers' Need (Rostrud, September 2018)

Amur Region

906

28 778

10 100

65 928

Khabarovsk Krai

683

8318

6900

12 499

Primorsky Krai

820

7 847

10 500

77 405

Trans-Baikal Territory

547

3 874

7 800

15 985

The Jewish Autonomous Region

508

3 060

1 100

7 759

Magadan region

111

966

1 100

2 591

The Republic of Buryatia

120

777

5 400

12 488

Sakhalin Region

52

404

2 400

15 563

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

81

286

600

1 088

The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

2

178

10 000

10 241

Kamchatka

7

16

2 500

6 482



FACT TWO: PAY YOU CAN BE LESS

Meanwhile, the DFO regions, like any other Russian, meet their staffing requirements not only at the expense of quota-based migrant workers. The quota is valid only for those foreign countries with which Russia has a visa regime. These are mainly “far abroad” countries, and labor from most of the CIS countries is not quoted. In particular, a visa-free regime for Russia with Tajikistan, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan.

Of course, any foreign worker for employment in Russia needs permission from the Ministry of Internal Affairs, confirmation of knowledge of the Russian language and the history of Russia - and a whole package of documents. But employers do not need to issue individual quotas for these workers.

Russian enterprises attract foreign workers for a variety of reasons, and the lack of skilled labor with Russian citizenship is the main, but not always the most important of them. Some enterprises that actively use the services of foreigners are based on funds from citizens of the same country. A similar situation, coming from the 1990-s, is observed in the Far East in various fields, such as logging, agriculture, small-scale construction and repair. Some of the owners are simply forced to attract foreign labor (for example, under-carpenters fishermen, whose vessels sail the sea under the flags of foreign countries). However, in most cases, the reasons for attracting migrants are purely economic.

Whether this is so can be easily understood from the ratios of the two basic indicators, the “dispersion” of the salaries of foreigners attracted by quotas, and the average salaries in the regions of the Russian Federation.


As can be seen on the graph, the "lower" limit of the cost of attracting foreign labor by quotas is everywhere lower than the average wages in the region. “Upper” is also almost everywhere below, with the exception of four regions - the Amur Region, the Khabarovsk and Trans-Baikal Territories, and the Primorsky Territory.

However, if you look at it, the most “expensive” migrant workers, in whose involvement employers are interested in subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District, are highly qualified personnel who cannot be “bought” cheaper than the average salary levels in each respective region. The rest of the mass is a low-skilled labor force, which is inevitably cheaper for employers.

Averaging the indicators gives an even more economical picture. On average, migrant workers receive significantly less than workers in the region as a whole.


FACT THREE: GAZPROM'S CONTRACTORS MAKE THE PICTURE

Another question is who of the foreign workers is required by Far Eastern employers. In this sense, the Amur region, where the largest employer for legal foreign workers operates in 2019 in the Far East - LLC Renaissance Heavy Industries, is very interesting. The company's total satisfied bid is 12 722 rights (only installers of technological pipelines from Turkey will need 1,75 thousand people).

The beginning of the business of the Renaissance group was laid in the beginning of the 1990-s in St. Petersburg by a Turkish citizen Erman Ylycak. Now the companies of the group are contractors for heavy industry facilities in Russia, Turkmenistan, Turkey and the Middle East. In 2018, Renaissance Heavy Industries LLC. The main subcontract to the construction of the Amur gas processing plant of Gazprom, the main construction site of the region for the next few years, won. Gazprom estimates the project at 950 billion rubles, the head of the Amur Region, Vasily Orlov, in mid-February said that the readiness of the construction site is already 22%. Subcontractors winning contracts with Gazprom needed a large number of skilled workers - and not only Renaissance Heavy Industries.

Thus, the branch of JSC "Yamata Yatyrim Inshaat Tourism and Tijaret Anonymous Shirketi" in Svobodny need for work on Amur GPP 5,4 thousand construction workers, Moscow "TechStalMontazh" - still 1,2 thousand workers, Stroyhimneftegazu - 1 thousand workers, and so Further. Another major employer for foreigners in the region is the Blagoveshchensk branch of China Petroleum Engineering & Construction Corporation. Companies in 2018 needed 1,2 thousand workers from China; in 2019, 705 people. Its tasks are also related to the construction of Gazprom: China Petroleum Engineering & Construction Corporation performs the design, manufacture, supply of equipment and construction of booster compressor shops, gas drying and gas cleaning plants, gas fractionation of the Amur GPP.

At the same time, the situation with the Amur region is distracted from the average in the Far East Federal District. The rest of the largest employers for "quota" foreigners are mainly large forest, construction and trading companies from different regions of the Far East.

Top 20 largest employers for foreigners by quota (DFO, 2019 year)

Employer in the DFO

Quota, people

1

Renaissance Heavy Industries LLC (St. Petersburg)

12722

2

Branch of a foreign company Joint-stock company Yamata Yatyrym Inshaat Tourism we Tijaret Anonym Shirketi (Svobodny, Amur region)

5430

3

OP TechStalMontazh (Moscow)

1242

4

OOO STROYKHIMNEFTEGAZ (Moscow)

1000

5

LLC Company Business Contact (Khabarovsk)

922

6

LLC Velesstroymontazh (Moscow)

850

7

Ali Company (Khabarovsk)

791

8

Branch of a foreign company AMURSKAYA BRANCH OF CHINA PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION (Blagoveshchensk)

705

9

LLC Repair and construction company Vostok (Amazar, Zabaykalsky Krai)

612

10

Baykalrud LLC (Butunthay, Zabaykalsky Krai)

600

11

URAN LLC (Moscow)

513

12

LLC XC Construction (Moscow)

500

13

CJSC RFP LESOZAGOTOVKA (Khabarovsk Territory)

482

14

OOO AL'FA ENGINEERING and CONSTRUCTION (Moscow)

460

15

Montazhenergostroy LLC (Svobodny, Amur Region)

419

16

JSC Construction Company N 1 (Blagoveshchensk)

400

17

AMURNEFTEGAZMONTAZH, OOO (Svobodny, Amur Oblast)

400

18

LLC DR-Stroykonstruktsiya (Vladivostok)

363

19

OOO Grass (Dalnerechensk)

346

20

INCON LLC (Tobolsk)

305

FACT FOUR: CHINESE, TURKS. INDIANS?

Is the prevalence of employees from the People's Republic of China among foreign workers a Far Eastern reality or a myth?

As it is impossible to judge about the entire array of migrant workers (immigrants from the CIS countries, we recall, they are not quoted), conclusions can only be drawn from the statistics of the Ministry of Labor. They are unequivocal: there are still more Chinese among those employed by quotas than the rest.

The second place among foreign workers in 2019 in the Far East is for immigrants from Turkey, third place is for India, fourth place is for Vietnam, fifth place is for the Philippines. A relatively large number of Indians are a consequence of the personnel policy of contractors at the Amur GPP construction site: they need, for example, 570 pipeline installers from this country, 270 equipment installers, 315 welders-operators, and hundreds of other construction specialists.


Oddly enough, Japan is in last place among the countries in popularity: this year, Far Eastern employers needed only one specialist from this state, and this is a cook for an enterprise from Vladivostok, famous for its pan-Asian establishments. But why the company from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky two hairdressers from Morocco, probably, will remain a mystery.

The main countries from which workers come to quotas to the Far East in 2019

Country

Workers in the DFO

China

27 841

Turkey

16 206

India

4 077

Vietnam

1 904

Philippines

1 623

Serbia

1 277

Turkmenistan

968

Indonesia

228

Malaysia

176

Bosnia and Herzegovina

62

FACT FIVE: BUILDERS OVERCOME

It is quite logical, given such a large request for quotas from builders in the Amur Region, is the distribution of workers by specialties: 30% of the required workers from abroad are installers, and the top 20 of the main occupations of workers by quotas is half formed by construction specialties.

The rarest professions to which foreigners are invited literally in isolated cases are management personnel: chief accountant, chief geophysicist, deputy director. In the same group (for the 1 unit), there were, for example, the “plenipotentiary for religious affairs” from South Korea, who was required by one of the churches of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, the “picker of stones” from China for a Chita company called “Tea of ​​the East” and “swimmer plastics "for a company from Ussuriysk.


In general, the exotic professions in the applications of Far Eastern employers abound. Thus, one of the companies in Primorye this year requires two Chinese specialists with the profession of “razmotchik Khlystov”. Timber company from Khabarovsk - four "pencil slate gauge" (it happens, it turns out, such a craft). And three specialists in a satisfied application for quotas of another Khabarovsk enterprise are referred to as “third masseurs”.

Of course, a business operating in the Far East goes to the mass attraction of employees from abroad not from a good life. The fall of the prestige of working professions and the lack of permanent large-scale construction projects in the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District gradually led to organizing the implementation of large contracts (similar to the construction of facilities for the APEC-2012 summit in the Primorsky Territory, the construction of oil and gas pipelines and large industrial facilities) by only local specialists , and foreigners who came to work on quotas can also pay on average less.

Unfortunately, the current situation is beneficial to the state. In addition to fees for permits, the Federal Tax Service, for example, can count on an increased 30-percentage personal income tax on the salary of a employed non-resident (they become tax residents only after the 183 day of their stay in Russia). Illegal use of foreigners, including the use of a profession other than the one for which the permit is issued, or simply the absence of a notification to the Ministry of Internal Affairs about hiring a foreigner to work, is punishable serious fines and can lead to the suspension of the legal entity.

On the other hand, it is precisely in the Far East since 2014 that a special mode of attracting foreign labor force has been in effect for enterprises-investors who invest in the construction of priority objects and have received the status of residents of advanced development territories (TOR). According to Article 351.5 of the Labor Code, such employers, firstly, “obtaining permits to attract and use foreign workers is not required”, and secondly, it “is issued without taking into account quotas for issuing invitations to foreign citizens to enter the Russian Federation in order to implement employment, as well as quotas for issuing work permits to foreign nationals. ”

Whether this mechanism has earned, EastRussia will explain in the following material on the topic.